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Physical development in Infancy|Physical development during Adolescence

Physical development in infancy 

Infancy is supposed to last from birth to six years. These condition can be divided into two parts.

 1. First part : from birth to 3 years,

 2. Second part : from 3 to 6 years.

The first part varies from birth to three years. Indeed, it is in this period that a child child may be called. Infant' is not going to speak meaning. A new - born child may not have been able to say so clearly for about three years.

As the second part learns to speak properly after the age of three, the stages become vacant after three years. The age of six years from the standpoint of convenience and behaviour is set at infancy. During the above three years, the child 's physical development is accompanied by a tremendous speed. In the next three years the pace of language becomes comparatively slow. Hence it may be called the period of slow evolution.


Physical development takes place in the following ways :

1. Size - The length of the baby is about 20 inches at birth. Generally the boys are about 1/2 an inch taller than the girls. In the first year, the baby becomes about 27 or 28 inches, 31 or 33 inches in the second year and about 40 or 44 inches in the sixth year.

2. Weight - The weight of the child at birth is greater than that of girls. The weight of the newborn varies from 6 to 8 pounds. In the first six months, the weight of the child is doubled and three times in a year. In three years it is about twenty or twenty five pounds and by sixth years it is about forty pounds.

3. Muscles - The muscles of a baby may have 23% of its body weight. Gradually this weight increases. He has rapid development of arms. In two years, the legs double the forearm and almost a half fold. Their muscles attain flexibility by the age of six years.

4. Bones - The bones of a newborn baby are small, soft and flexible. The number of bones is 270. Bones grow stronger with the help of calcium phosphorus and other minerals. This is called the process of ossification. The girl gets bone - ridden more quickly than the child.


5. Teeth - They have no teeth since birth. Tooth formation begins in about seventh month. These are temporary teeth. These are called milk teeth. By the age of one year, the number is eight, and all the teeth of milk are come by about four years of age. After this, the teeth fall down and permanent teeth start forming at the age of fifth or sixth.

6. Head and brain - Newborn baby's head is bigger than the body. The length of the head at birth is about 1/4 of the total length of his body. The head grows very fast in the first two years. Thereafter the pace of development is slowed down. The brain weighs about 350 grams at birth. It grows to 1260 grams by the age of six. The weight of the adult brain is 1400 grams. This shows that in infancy, the weight of the head increases at a rapid pace.

7. Development of internal organs - After birth, the internal organs of the body develop. It consists of a digestive organ (lungs), muscles, nervous system , blood circulation organ , productive organs and glands in the body develops respectively.

Physical development in early childhood 


Childhood is considered to be between 6 and 12 years of age. This stage is divided into two parts 

 1. First part: from 6 to 9 years

 2. The second part: from 9 to 12 years

The development in the first part is very fast and in the second part it gets slow. But a strictness starts coming in the body.

The physical changes in this age are as follows:

1. Height and size - This period is particularly important in terms of its increasing length. At this stage, the length increases by 2-3 inches per year. By the age of six to nine years, the length of girls is shorter than that of boys. In the 10th year, the length of the both is almost the same and by the age of 12, the girls are much longer than children.

2. Weight - Even in weight, like length, girls are less than a boy for nine years and more than a boys during the course of 10 to 12 years.

3. Brain and head - While the head develops, the body and head ratio tends to the equality of the proportion of the adult 's body and head. At the end of infancy, the brain develops over 90% of the adult brain, which grows up to 95% when it comes to childhood. Thus there is adequate development of the brain during childhood.

4. Muscle - muscle development during childhood is slow. At the age of 8, muscle mass forms 27% of the total body weight that grows to 33% in 12 years.


5. Development of trunk part of the body - development of the trunk of the body during childhood is vital for the boy and the girl. At this age the body becomes powerful, strong , so that the child is able to control the movement of his limbs. The shoulders of boys begin to thicken and the hips thinner. The shoulders of girls become thinner and wider the hips.

6. Hands and legs - during childhood, the legs of children become long and straight. And girls' feet with some inward inclinations. Arms can also become taller.

7. Teeth - At the beginning of childhood, teeth of milk start to fall and new, permanent teeth start to develop. All teeth develop in about 12-13 years. The normal number of teeth is 27-28. The teeth of the girls may appear a little faster than the boys. Teeth stabilize and beautify the face.

8. Development of sex organs - Development of Reproductive organs of both boys and girls also develop as early as in childhood, but it develops slowly in boys. By 11-12 years, the sexual organs of girls develop at a faster pace.

9. Heart beating - Heart beat is less in childhood as compared to infancy. The heart of 18 year - old boys beats 85 times per minute.

Physical development in adolescence 


Adolescence is usually between 12 and 18 years of age. In adolescence, boys and girls develop very quickly. The fastest growth time in boys is between 14 and 15 years and girls 11 to 13 years.

The physical development in adolescence are as follows :

1. Weight - In adolescence, Boys weight increases more than Girls. At the end of this stage, the weight of the boys is 25 pounds more than the girls.

2. Height - In Adolescence , boys and girls grow faster in height. The height of boys and girls is almost the same at the age of 15. By reaching the age of 18, boys are 6-7 cm more in length than girls. Adolescent girls gets her maximum height at the age of 16 years, and boys height increases even after 18 years of age.

3. Head and brain - Head and brain develop during this stage also. By the age of 15 or 16, the head develops almost complete. Weight of brain varies between 1200 and 1400 grams.

4. Bones - Ossification process of bones is completed at this stage. Some of the minor bones join together.

5. Teeth - By the beginning of adolescence, all permanent teeth of Boys and girls come out, wisdom teeth also come out either at the end of this stage or at the beginning of the Adult age.

6. Muscle - muscle development during adolescence is rapid. At the age of 12, muscle mass can be about 33% of total body weight and about 44% at the age of 16 years. Muscle formation is strongly affected. All limbs appear well - shaped and prominent.



1. Heredity - heredity is the dominant factor affecting the development of the body.

 "Heredity is the transmission of traits from parents to offspring. - Ruth Bendict

The organism is produced by the union of the parents' seed cells. Biologists and psychologists have shown through their various studies that parents' qualities of behaviour have a profound impact on their progeny. The progeny of healthy parents is generally healthy, and the progeny of sick and weak parents are generally weak and patient. Heredity is regarded as the most important factor in physical development.

"Heredity is a far more powerful agent in human development than nature." - According to Francis Galton

2. Environment - "Environment is any external force which influence us." - Ross 

 Psychologically, an individual 's environment is a sum of all the stimuli that come to him right up to his death from conception. The atmosphere mainly has three dimensions. Geographical environment, social environment and mental environment. A favourable environment adversely affects physical development while adverse environment adversely affects it.

In other words, climate, adequate lighting, clean picturesque surroundings have a positive impact on the physical development of the Boys & girls.


3. Nutritious food (nutritive diet) - child's healthy and healthy growth is particularly Depends on nutritious and balanced Diet. In this connection, sorenson said, 'nutritious food is a powerful enemy of fatigue and an ultimate friend of physical development.

4. Regulated routine - a regular routine affects the physical development of the child. His time for food, drink, reading, writing, sleeping should be set. Hence, for healthy and healthy growth, the child should have a habit of living a regular life right from the beginning.

5. Sleep and rest - sleep and rest are essential for healthy growth of the body. The baby should be allowed to sleep as much as possible. A child of three or four years must have 12 hours of sleep. During childhood and adolescence, one gets ten to eight hours of sleep respectively. The child needs to get enough rest so that fatigue, which comes out of his activity, may be completely removed, as fatigue may prove to be a hindrance to its growth.

6. Exercise, Games and entertainment - working forever and not doing sports, not getting recreation opportunities will weaken the growth of the child. Thus, exercise and sports are indispensable for physical development. Along with this, mortiz and recreation play an important role in physical development.

7. Love - child 's physical development is affected by parents and teachers too. If the child does not get love and sympathy from them, he is suffering enough to prevent a balanced and natural development of his body. Its development gets corroded.

8. Security - security is important for proper development of a child or child. For want of this feeling, he experiences fear and loses confidence. Both these factors impede his growth.

9. Family environment - family is a place of affection. All this can be done through the family. Therefore, proper family environment becomes absolutely necessary for proper physical development.

10. Other factors - some other factors affecting physical development are like health, disease or disease causing changes, climate, social traditions, financial condition of the family, family living, school and education etc.



  • All dimensions of growth and development are interrelated. It is the duty of the teacher to extend his full share in the development of the personality of his students.
  • A balanced development of the child 's personality is the object of education.
  • The biggest responsibility of the teacher is to achieve this aim of education.
  • A balanced development of personality can take place only when the body of the child is properly and in proper terms.
  • The teacher can discharge his responsibility successfully only if he is aware of the child 's natural physical development.
  • "The child is first and foremost a physical being. This physical constitution is basic to the development of his attitudes and behaviour. Hence, it is necessary to study the patterns of his physical growth." - Crow and Crow.
  • At the level of training, teachers should be imparted knowledge of the various points, factors, characteristics of physical development.
  • It should be obvious to the teacher that physical development is the basis of social emotional, mental and moral development.
  • A teacher of physical development, both directly and indirectly, can play his part in achieving the goal of child 's physical development and education.