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Need and Importance of Curriculum b.ed notes| Bases of Curriculum Construction b.ed notes


Each society and nation determines its educational aims as per its needs, and constructs is curriculum for the realization of these aims. The curriculum comprises of only those methods which can be helpful in the realization of the specified aims. Thus, we can show the need and importance of curriculum under the following points:

1. Utilization of Time and Energy : After the curriculum has been ascertained, a teacher finds out what he has to teach and the student knows what he has to study. It saves on time and energy.

2. Equal Level of Education : When the curriculum is specified, the level of education in the entire society is equal and uniform. It helps us find out the right direction of our educational reforms; also it helps us to maintain the uniform level of education.


3. Helpful in Realization of Educational Aims : The curriculum is constructed fori the realization of educational aims. In the absence of it, we cannot ascertain the aims being realized with the help of which subjects or activities, and which activities or subjects are meaningless.

4. Helpful in Educational Process : The teaching material is prepared on the basis of curriculum. It explains the amount of knowledge and skill in activities to be imparted at a particular level of education. Thus, a specified curriculum helps to systematize the educational process.

5. Fulfilment of Psychological Needs of Students: A specified curriculum is helpful in meeting the psychological needs of students. Because man is a social being, and takes interest in purposeful activities and wants to do work which may be helpful in the realization of his preserve needs and meeting future needs. All these things are kept in view in curriculum construction, and precisely for this reason, students show interest in it.


6. Writing of Text-books : A specified curriculum guides different scholars and writers for writing text-books. The writers take the curriculum as the basis for writing text-books.

7. Evaluation : The curriculum assists in evaluating students. With the curriculum at hand for a particular level, it becomes easier to evaluate students' abilities. If there is no curriculum for a level, it would not be an easy task for teachers to evaluate students' abilities.


While constructing the curriculum, many factors have to be kept in view such as nature of community, its values, the areas of changes occurring in it, and social heritage. Thus, society, individual and social heritage are the bases on which curricula are constructed. 

These foundations are as follows:


1. Historical Basis : Under history are studied the pat experiences from which the curriculum-makers are able to draw good and clear examples for the future. Also, it saves upon time, energy and resources.

According to James, history is the mine of life experiences, and today's youth studies it so that he can take advantage from his race's experiences.

2. Philosophical Basis : Philosophical basis has much effect on the curriculum, because philosophy specifies educational aims, and a curriculum is a means of realizing these aims. Therefore, the curriculum is specified as per educational aims.

For example, according to idealism, the chief aim of education is self-realization; therefore, in an idealist curriculum thoughts of universal importance, as Satyam, Shivan and Sundaram are included.

Naturalism favours complete freedom to a child, so its curriculum includes sports, exercise, excursion, nature observation, etc.

Realism accepts only the perceived world as real, so its curriculum includes only those subjects which can explain thel physical world.

In the same manner, pragmatism says that the truth is continuously changing, so its curriculum does not attach much to subject matter, and the curriculum is set as per the students' interests and aptitudes.

3. Psychological Basis: According to psychological basis, the curriculum should be constructed as per individual differences, so that students can get education as per their nature, interests, abilities, capabilities, attitudes and needs. A curriculum on this basis is child-oriented.


4. Scientific Basis : This basis is the gift of Herbert Spencer. In it emphasis is laid on presenting laws, principles and outcomes in practical form. Therefore, natural and physical sciences are given much importance in this curriculum. Besides, such subjects are also included which can keep in view the present needs.

5. Sociological Basis : On this, basis, social needs, demands, assumptions and aspirations are kept in view for curriculum construction. The curriculum includes of al those activities and experiences by which a child can develop the spirits of sociality, cooperation, etc. lohn Dewey has approved of this basis. The curriculum should comprise of only ose experiences and activities which represent social life and its activities.

6. Cultural Basis: The curriculum assimilates several points of the culture. In fact, the culture is related with the entire lifestyle of a community; therefore, the curriculum includes all those skills, thoughts and values which are considered by the community as valuable and important.

Principles of Curriculum Construction

Bases of Curriculum Development

Subject Centered Curriculum