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Educational Philosophy of Maria Montessori | Montessori Method of Teaching


Maria Montessori's Philosophy of Education 


Educational Philosophy of Maria Montessori

Dr. Maria Montessori was born in 1870 AD in Chiaravalle town of Ancona region of Italy. 

In 1894 AD, Maria Montessori did M.D. from Rome University. Received the degree and in the same year took charge of the assistant physician in the medical department of this university. 

Here she was entrusted with the treatment of disabled and retarded children, due to which she came to know about their problems. She realized the need for a special type of education to solve the problems of such children. 

At the same time people's attention was drawn towards the role of parents in the development of such children. 

In 1906 AD the Government of Italy appointed her as the head of Balghar, here she got an opportunity to materialize her ideas regarding the education of disabled and retarded children. 

Montessori composed many texts related to the education of children, including the Montessori Method, The Secret of Childhood, Education for a New Word, The Discovery of Child to Educate Mind and Child Training are noteworthy. 

Montessori died in 1952 AD. In the field of education, Montessori worked only on the education of children with disabilities and retardation, and in the context of child education and child psychology, the development of the Montessori system is noteworthy.


Meaning of Education According to Maria Montessori

Montessori believed that at the time of birth, the human infant is physically less developed than the animal infant, but it has more possibilities of development. Education helps in the development of these innate abilities of man.

The ability to adjust according to circumstances can be developed in humans.

According to Maria Montessori, real education is that process which develops the innate abilities of man, enables him to adjust to new situations and enables him to prepare for future life.

Maria Montessori Aims of Education 

Maria Montessori has given the following aims of child education :-

1. Helping in the development of the innate abilities of children and development of their sense organs, sense organs and intelligence.

2. To develop the ability of adjustment in children by making them aware of their environment.

3. Preparing babies for future life.

4. Moral development of children and teaching them sense of service.

Maria Montessori Education Curriculum


According to Maria Montessori, the curriculum of children should be according to their natural abilities, interests and needs. They should be provided with real knowledge and skills related to their life and environment. He has included children's daily tasks, nature observation, functional and creative play, language and mathematics under the child education plan.

Maria Montessori Method of Teaching 

Maria Montessori has considered the Montessori method appropriate for teaching retarded and disabled children. The principles and procedure of Montessori system are given below :

1. The muscles of babies should be strengthened because all our physical and mental efforts depend on our muscles. For this, he has emphasized on self-editing of daily tasks, sports and use of educational equipment in Montessori schools.

2. Different substances should be used for the training of different sense organs so that the child can train his eyes, nose, tongue and skin sense organs by making them active by seeing, smelling, tasting and touching them.

3. Such an environment should be presented in front of the children so that they themselves can move towards knowing what you want to teach.

Self-motivated learning is called self-education by Montessori.

4. Children should be given opportunities to grow according to their ability and potential. In Montessori schools this should be done with the help of educational aids


5. Each child has different abilities and capabilities. Their interest and needs also differ therefore children should be given the opportunity to learn according to their ability, ability, interest and need, so that their personal development can be possible. Teachers should give individual help to the children in this.

6. Maria Montessori believes that curiosity to know something arises suddenly in every child which she has called psychological moment. In these moments, they should be given an environment to learn and know all that can satisfy their curiosity and needs.

7. Children are freedom lovers. So they should be given the freedom to learn at their own will and at their own pace. Montessori believed that children develop naturally in a free environment, develop a sense of self-esteem and become self-reliant. If strict control is exercised over them, the development of their personality is stunted. Astu children should be given the freedom to work voluntarily.

8. It is a psychological fact that the more active the children are in learning, the faster they will learn. Teaching children through play is the most appropriate teaching method.

9. Maria Montessori believed that discipline is an internal motivator which cannot be developed by any external pressure but by external motivation.

Social environment and social work are of utmost importance to develop real discipline in children. The child adopts his logic not by imitation, so he has emphasized on adopting the principle of logical discipline.

Tools Used in the Montessori System


1. Household Appliances- 

Washing, oil, soap, duster, towel, comb, mirror, shoe polish-brush, needle-thread, scissor, cooking material, utensil and utensil cleaning powder.

2. Educational equipment- 

blackboard, chalk, duster etc.

3. Educational Equipment-

Maria Montessori believed that educational equipment should be such that children are interested in it, it strengthens their physical senses and trains their sense organs. 

In such instruments, cylinders cubes of small and large sizes, small and large rectangular solid wooden boards with different types of holes, solids with smooth and rough surfaces, wooden sticks of different colors, different types of solids Different types of sounding bells, Foods of different tastes -salt, chilli, sour, sweet, etc., Different types of aromatic substances, Letters made of wood or cardboard, Different types of pictures, Number cards, Small wooden pieces, drawing books, colored pencils etc. for counting.

The main purpose of using these instruments is to train the senses of action and knowledge, to impart knowledge of language and mathematics.

There should also be sports equipment for children in schools. There should also be means of singing and playing for entertainment.

Teaching in Montessori Method


1. Education of motor senses -

To strengthen the motor senses of infants, children should be taught to clean, decorate furniture, polish shoes, wash hands and face, bathe, wear clothes, make hair, serve food, eat food, clean utensils. is given the opportunity. Also opportunities are given to participate in gardening, sports and exercise.

With these activities, the muscles become strong and the organs of action become strong.

2. Education through sense organs - 

Maria Montessori created different education tools for the training of different sense organs, such as visual, auditory, olfactory, taste and touch by making different tools for the children through sense organs. Provided for the education of In using these educational instruments, children ave to use their physical senses as well.

3. Education of language and mathematics- 

In Montessori method, children are first taught to write, for which letters and numbers made of wood or cardboard are used. While doing this they also pronounce with the teachers, so that they also learn to pronounce. Children learn anguage and mathematics practically by participating in practical activities.

Other Ideas related to Education Philosophy of Maria Montessori

1. Montessori believed that children should be given such an environment in schools that they are completely free to do anything. This will lead them towards real discipline. He has given this type of discipline the noun of logical discipline.


2. Maria Montessori's teachers should be very sensitive, motherly behavior. For this reason, she was in favor of appointing women teachers because they understand the problems of children better. Teachers should help the children to learn naturally, do not obstruct their work, help in creating suitable conditions and act as a guide.

3. Children should be given full and independent opportunities for their development. All plans for the education of children should be according to their natural abilities, interests and needs.

4. Schools should be like kindergartens. The school should have one big room and other small rooms. Schools must have prescribed furnishings including home appliances, educational equipment and educational instruments. There should be proper arrangement of fresh air and sunlight in the classrooms.

5. Maria Montessori has talked about her education system only in the context of education of disabled and retarded children, these can be both boys and girls.

6. Maria Montessori considered the purpose of education to be preparation for real life. From which it resonates that she was in favor of giving vocational education to the children.

7. He has supported giving moral education to the children.