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Models of Teaching b.ed notes | Characteristics of Models of Teaching


Meaning and Importance of Teaching Models

The aim of teaching is to raise the level of learning. After the development of education psychology, many learning theories were propounded for this. 

Accordingly, the knowledge of the curriculum was made available to the students, but these learning theories failed to find solutions to the practical problems of classroom teaching. 

Therefore, now special attention is being given to teaching instead of learning to solve the practical problems of classroom teaching and psychologists and educationists are trying to develop teaching principles instead of learning principles. For this, new teaching models have been presented. Just as an architect / engineer makes a dam, bridge / building etc. according to a plan design, Similarly, the teacher also uses teaching models to make his teaching effective. 

To understand the meaning of Teaching Models, it is necessary to first understand the meaning of the model.The word paradigm is the Hindi version of the English word Model. It is also called an idol.

The educational dictionary defines a model as, "A model is a representation of an object or principle or idea on a graphical or three dimensional scale.,


In this way, the word model is used for a miniature form / statue of an object / person / building / theory / idea etc. so that any person can imagine or understand its true form by observing the model. 

When a big project or dam or building etc. has to be constructed, first of all its design is prepared. After that, its model is prepared in a certain size and proportion, after proper checking, the actual work is done. If any discrepancy is visible in the model, then the model is made again by modifying it.

In view of this concept, for the successful operation of the educational system in the field of education, an attempt is made to make a teaching design or paradigm of any theory/idea, according to which the teaching work can be done in an effective and systematic manner.

These are called Teaching Models.

Bruce defining the teaching model . R. Bruce R.

Joyce wrote, " Teaching models are appropriate instructional designs. They describe the process of eliciting and the creation of specific environmental conditions that cause the learner to interact in such a way that leads to specific changes in his behavior.

According to Joyce and Weil, "Teaching model is a plan or design that we use for tutorial setting or for direct instruction in classrooms and educational materials (books, films, tapes). may be used in shaping computer programs or courses).


Characteristics of Teaching Models

Based on the above definitions, teaching models can have the following characteristics

1. A teaching model is a plan or design for an educational system or direct instruction.

2. The teaching model determines the interaction between the teacher and the students.

3. Teaching models act as a guide for the teacher.

4. Both the teacher and the student get the desired experience from them.

5. Teaching models present a framework for the creation of educational activities and environmental conditions.

6. They help in changing the behavior of the student.

Elements of Teaching Models

Joyce and Weil have mentioned the following elements for any teaching model



Any teaching model has a definite goal/objective.

Some scholars have called it the focal point.

Since in all the teaching patterns, all the activities of the teacher and the student are focused on the attainment of this goal or objective or focal point. That is why it is called Goal.

Syntax or Phasing

The second element of the teaching model is the structure/stage. In this, the teaching steps are explained and the sequence of teaching activities is determined so that learning conditions can be created and teaching goals can be achieved.

Joyce and Weil have written, "The structure/state of the model describes the functioning of the model."

Social system

The social system of the teaching model has special importance in making teaching effective because in this post, the activities of the teacher and the student and their mutual relations are given. The role of a teacher varies from one paradigm to another. In any model, the teacher is a reflector or facilitator of group activities. 

In the other, the counselor of a particular student and in the other, the work provider. In a model, the teacher is at the center of the action, the source of information, the facilitator and the facilitator of the situation. In some models, the activities are divided equally between the teacher and the students. 

In some models the student is at the centre. It is encouraged to give more importance to social and intellectual freedom. 

Joyce and Weil wrote, "The social system describes the types of teacher and student roles, relationships, and standards that are encouraged."


Principles of Reaction

This is the main term of the teaching model. In this, those actions of the teacher are determined, in which the students react as a result of the teacher's actions and what is their nature. 

As Joyce and Weil wrote, "The principle of feedback informs the teacher how to pay attention to the learner (student), how to elicit responses, and what the learner (student) is doing?"

Thus, in some models the teacher tries to shape the behavior of students by giving importance to some actions and maintains a neutral position towards others.

Support system

This is a very important element of the teaching model. In this, the teacher needs special help to use a particular teaching model in addition to his general abilities, skills and whatever resources are normally available in the classroom. 

These special aids are some special teaching materials such as slides, films, self-instructional materials, models, graphics, excursions to a particular place, flexible timetable, organization of teaching-learning situations in a particular way, special teaching skills and teacher behavior from teachers. Can be in the form of expectation etc.

In this way, the supporting system of the model paves the way for the success of the model by creating a proper environment and facilities for teaching.



In what situation and in what form the teaching model can be used in teaching. The teacher must also have knowledge of this because some paradigms prove to be more useful for teaching short lessons, while some can be used for teaching long lessons or both short and long lessons. Variations are also found in the patterns regarding the attainment of goals. 

For example, some give more emphasis on the attainment of cognitive goals, while some achieve functional or emotional goals well. As a result, teaching of a particular subject or topic can be done well by one teaching model, while the acquisition of other subjects or learning experiences is possible well by other models. Therefore, through this last element, we get information that in what form a teaching model can prove to be useful.

Types of Teaching Models

The process of teaching model is still in the laboratory. That is why various scholars have classified teaching models on the basis of their research results, the details of which are as follows

Philosophical Teaching Models

Israel Scheffler presented three models of teaching based on his research in 1964, which he called Philosophical Models of Teaching, which are as follows


(i) The Impression Model of Teaching 

(ii) The Insight Model of Teaching 

(iii) The Rule Model of Teaching

Psychological Teaching Models

In 1964, John P. Dececco divided teaching models into four categories and termed them as psychological teaching models, which are as follows:

(i) A Basic Model of Teaching

(ii) Computer Based Model of Teaching

iii) School Learning-model of Teaching

(iv) Interaction -Interaction Model of Teaching

Modern Teaching Models

Joyce and Weil presented more than 20 teaching models in 1972 AD, which they termed as Families of Models of Teaching and presented them by classifying them into four main families were as follows :-

Families of Teaching Models

(i) The Social Family

(ii) The Information Processing Family 

(iii) The personal Family

(iv) The Behavioral system Family

On the basis of the above families, Joyce and Weil have classified teaching models, which are called Modern Models of Teaching. Their details are as follows


Social Interaction Teaching Models

In the social interaction teaching model, special attention is paid to social development in view of the social side of man. Man lays more emphasis on his social relations. Hence it is studied in this teaching model to prepare citizens to generate relevant democratic behavior, enhance both personal and social life and ensure productive democratic social order. 

There are four types of teaching model included in this teaching model

1. Social Inquiry Teaching Model

2. Group Investigation Teaching Model

3. Juris Prudential Teaching Model

4. Laboratory Teaching Model 

Information Processing Teaching Models

The information processing teaching model emphasizes ways to enhance the innate resonance of human beings and seeks to acquire and organize data, make sense of problems, and find solutions. Some models emphasize or concept formation and hypothesis testing and some models generate creative thinking. 

Six types of teaching models are included in this teaching model

1. Inquiry Training Model

2. Concept Attainment Teaching Model

3. Advance Organizer Teaching Model

4. Induction Teaching Model

5. Biological Science Inquiry Teaching Model

6. Developmental Teaching Model


Personal Models of Teaching

The individualized learning model places special emphasis on individual development so that they can understand more about themselves, take responsibility for their own learning and learn to grow beyond their current development and become more productive in their quest for a higher standard of living. become stronger, more sensitive and more creative. 

There are four types of teaching model included in this teaching model

1. Synectics Teaching Model

2. Non-Directive Teaching Model

3. Class room Meeting Teaching Model

4. Awareness Teaching Model

Behavior Modification Models of Teaching

Behavior change teaching models emphasize on changing the external behavior of the learner, for which special attention is focused on desired behaviours, actions and methods. 

This learning model includes the following learning models

1. Programmed Learning Model

2. Operant Conditioning Teaching Model