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Meaning of Childhood B.Ed Notes | Characteristics of Childhood b.ed notes


From infancy to maturity, development of each the mental and physical growth isn't uniform.

The kid grows terribly speedily upto the age of 3 From three to six his progress is slow. At concerning six he has one little amount of fast development once that the kid becomes remarkably stable in his adjustment with the surroundings.

This stability is that the greatest characteristic of later childhood. this era, in keeping with brain doctor word, is that the amount within which the conflict has been resolved and also the kid with confidence appearance outward to satisfy his curiosity.

The transition is from stinginess (infancy) to social existence. But, the maturation isn't excellent. In keeping with Watson's theory behaviour becomes a lot of differentiated and also the kid is in a position to discriminate things. Language and understanding move during this stage.


1. At this stage we discover exceptional stability each physical and mental, i.e., it's a amount of consolidation.

2. It's a amount of semi-maturity. the kid is kind of reception within the world and is aware of the way to alter the things that confront him.

3. At this stage we discover ripening of the gregarious instinct. The real joy of life he founds within the company of the play mates.

4. Higher sorts of social behaviour aren't manifested e.g. he needs to require other's toys however doesn't need to share his own. Fellow opinion forms his behaviour. He even ells lies for his fellow-beings.

5. He becomes extrovert associate degreed develops an outward outlook. He loves outside activities and play. he's intensely curious on however things work.

6. This era has no sex issues.

7. At this stage kid is capable of most of the necessary intellectual operations.

Physical Development in Childhood:

The period of early childhood extends from 3 to 6 years.

The slow growth in height and weight continues during this period. But the rate of growth in height is greater than the growth in weight. The height at the age of 6 reaches 43 inches and the weight is 42 pounds. His body is still disproportionate as compare with an adult. The trunk grows in length and also in width. His sloping shoulders become broader. The arms also become longer, and also the legs, though at a slower rate than the arms. Early childhood is the golden age to new skills. They serve as background for the learning of finer skills.

Later childhood covers the period from 6 to 12 years. Physical development at this stage is relatively stable, and his sense organs, muscles, brain are more or less mature enough. This child is capable of most of thre important intellectual operations.

Emotional Development in Childhood :

This period is also called latency period. In this period tabulated emotions of the early years are not active. They are latent and dormant. At this stage the child is able to control his feelings and emotions. He is able to face the world and is not easily distributed by antagonism, unkindness. Sometimes children rebell, take delight in defiance and disregard of authority. Typical emotions of early childhood are anger, fear, shyness, jealousy, affection, and curiosity. Certain conditions within the child or his environment lead to emotional behaviour such as temper tantrums. Due to influence of maturation and training the expression of emotions in later childhood is refined. He does experience intense emotional feeling of love, hate, fear and these endured for long periods of time. But, he has learned to control their open demonstration by this stage

Social Development in Childhood:

  • The child of this stage achieves greater sociability. By the time the child goes to elementary school, he has lost interest in playing alone.
  • He turns to play actively that involves the group.
  • He likes to make friends of the same sex. Girls like girls, boys like boys.
  • The friends are usually chosen from the children of the same sex who live in the neighbourhood, or who belong to his class.
  • He desires to be in a group of his friends of his own age.
  • They form clubs or gangs for sports, games, social activities, going to picture and even for fighting.
  • The child often goes from one group to another.

  • This child being a member of the group determines a moral code. He understands the underlying principles and reasons for rules.
  • Though reasoning is not fully developed in him, he is not able to judge for himself but he relies on what he learns.
  • He develops certain standards and knows that stealing is wrong.
  • He learns to be relatively independent self-reliant.
  • He dislikes unreasonable curbing of his activities, but he is quick to forgive and forget.
  • He no longer prefers to go in the company of his parents to visit relatives.
  • The interest is more in what happens in the world outside.

  • In the later childhood social groups are longer that those of early childhood.
  • The basis of friendship is mostly the common interest.
  • The best friend relationship is established with the member of the same sex.
  • This period is sometimes called the gang age'.
  • That is why, juvenile organizations such as scouts, guides, camping, clubs are very much liked by them.
  • The child of about 11 years can appreciate good leadership, careful organization and new interests.
  • The child at this stage becomes more an extrovert than an introvert.