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Socialization B.Ed Notes | Process of Socialization | Types of Socialization

Socialization B.Ed Notes


Socialization, also spells socialisation, is a term used by sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, political scientists, and educationalists to refers to the lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs, and ideologies, providing the individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating in his own society.

Socialization is the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained."

A new born child is a store house of possibilities. His development takes place on the basis of these possibilities.

The Biological Heredity provides the raw material for his development. The social environment provides those conditions under which this raw material takes the shape of a social person whose limits of physical, motivational and intellectual possibilities are set up.

This continuous process by which the child is influenced by - others among whom parents are the most prominent is called Socialization.

Socialization is a way of learning through which the child starts functioning in accordance to those needs which arise because of his membership to a specific society.

In this way, the child adjusts himself to the basic pattern of group life and the foundation of adult behaviour are laid.

Concept of Socialisation

In socialisation there is one particular individual on the one side and on the other there are other persons who have before them some accepted truths and the norms of the desirable behaviour.

It is the process of mutual relationships.

The behaviour of particular person is modified by coming in contact with others.

The members of the society who come in contact with the person have expectations of a specific behaviour from the person on the basis of accepted truth and the norms of desirable behaviour.

This particular person brings modifications in his behaviour in accordance with those expectations.

This process of modification of behaviour is known as socialisation

Types of Socialization

The 3 types of Socialization are as follows:

1. Primary Socialization :

The primary Socialization for the children is very important because it sets the ground work for all future socialization.

Primary Socialization occurs when the Children learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture.

It is mainly influenced through the immediate family and friends. For example if the child saw his/her mother expressing a discriminatory opinion about a minority group, then the child may think this behaviour is acceptable and could continue to have this opinion about minority groups.

2. Positive Socialization :

Positive socialization is the type of social learning which is based on pleasurable and exciting experiences.

We tend to like the people who fill our social learning process with positive motivation, loving care, and rewarding opportunities.

3. Negative Socialization :

Negative socialization occur when other uses punishment, harsh criticisms or anger to try to "teach us a lesson", and we come to dislike both negative socialization and the people who impose it on us.

There are all type of mixes of positive and negative socialization; and the more positive social learning experience we have, the happier we tend to be-especially, if we learn useful informations that help us cope well with the challenges of life.

A high ratio of negative to positive socialization can make the person unhappy, defeated or pessimistic about life.

Definitions of Socialisation

We are describing some of the definitions of socialisation given by experts in the field of social psychology

Jansen (1961) says that, "Socialisation is learning that enables the learner to perform social roles.”

According to Kimbal Young, "Socialisation...mean the process of inducting the individual into the social and cultural world.

Secord & Backman gives the definition of socialisation in terms of an interactional process. They say, "Socialisation is an interactional process whereby a person's behaviour is modified to confirm to expectations held by members of the group to which he belongs."


It is quite difficult to understand socialisation. But it is an interesting process. We employ various techniques in studying this process. We get much knowledge about this process through experimental methods, interviews, cross-cultural studies, systematic observation of the behaviour of children, and through anecdotal records, etc. Below we are describing how this process takes place.

A human child cannot survive without the help of other. From the very beginning of his life he becomes entangled in social relations which are essential for his survival. The dependence of the child on the adult members prepare him for performing those behaviours which are approved by the elders.

The parents are the first agents of socialisation of the child. They control those stimulus which result in desirable response. They provide guidance to their child. It is through conditioning that they teach the child to give desirable responses. For example, they teach the child to eat at fixed time and place. They teach him when to sleep and for how long to sleep. Thus, the parents by reinforcing some behaviours and by discouraging some other behaviours teach thie child the desirable norms of conduct. The child is told again and again to wash his hands before eating and if he does not do so he is not given fod. Slowly the child internalises this pattern of behaviour that before eating his meals he must wash his hands. Therefore, we may say that because of effect dependence the socialisation of the child begins from his family

Besides effect dependence the child also has information dependence. He is also dependent on the other members of the family for information. He has a desire to get information about his environment and wishes to understand it. He wants to learn the existing choices for his various actions. Much of the environmental knowledge he obtains through his sense organs by his own efforts but much of useful knowledge he obtains by mixing with other people in his social environment.

It is inherent in information dependence that the agents of socialisation keep full control over his cognitive structure. They give the explanation of some events in such a way that the child learns only those things which they want him to learn. Thus, the child's concept of reality is influenced by the agents of socialisation.