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Sadler Commission B.Ed Notes | The Calcutta University Commission 1917

Sadler Commission 1917                                    


The Calcutta University Commission 1917

Sadler Commission or The Calcutta University Commission of 1917.

This Commission went into the question of instruction and command the read that the advance of instruction was essential for the advance of University education.

  • Appointed by the govt. of India in 1917
  • Dr. Michael Sadler was the Chairman of Sadler Commission
  • The commission counseled the 10+2+3 pattern of education
  • Purdah colleges were established for Muslim women.
  • Intermediate categories were separated from the schools



  • All teaching employees in Calcutta should be organized in order that Calcutta University will become a teaching university fully.
  • The separate residential and teaching university should be started at capital of Bangladesh.
  • More universities should open and also the older universities should be thought-about as residential and teaching universities.
  • Colleges should develop new centers to slowly grow into a university.
  • All universities should be free of all excessive official controls and government interference in educational matters should be stopped.
  • Academic councils should be established in each university to influence all educational problems and queries.
  • Syndicate and senate should get replaced by the court and council to improvise the administration of the university.
  • Full-time salaried vice-chancellor should be appointed to become the executive head of the university.
  • Teaching and teaching work should be joined with researches should be organized below varied departments.
  • Boards of studies, facilities and statutory bodies should be fashioned.
  • Honors courses should be commenced that should diverge from past courses.
  • Tutorial analysis work should be organized.
  • Provision should be created for rendering instruction in engineering education, agriculture, law, medicine, and technology.
  • There was a large would like for coordinating agency and thus inter-university should be started.

Features of Sadler Commission in India


(1) Establishment of the board of secondary Education in every province.

(2) All the subjects except English and mathematics to be taught in mother-tongue a the secondary level.

(3) To liberate the schools from excessive Government management and supply autonomy to them.

(4)Establishment of the Court and the Executive Council in the universities with proper representation of teachers in them

5) Establishment of the Board of Studies and the Academic Councils in the universities.

6) Establishment of the departments in the universities.

7) Organisation of vocational courses-agriculture, law, medical engineering and teacher training, etc. in the universities.

(8)Establishment of the Department of Physical Education and the appointment of the Director of Physical Education in the universities.

Hartog Committee (1929)


Sir Philip Joseph Hartog committee was appointed by the British Indian govt. to survey on the expansion of education in India.

The Hartog committee on education submitted its report in 1929.

The Hartog committee 1929, had devoted a lot of attention to mass education than the secondary and University education.

The Hartog committee highlighted the problem of wastage and stagnation in education at the primary level, secondary level, higher education.

Reasons for the wastage and stagnation at the primary level:

(1) Every village does not have primary school. Students have to walk a long distance to attend schools. Though they take admission in schools but leave them before completion.

(2) The distribution of primary schools is also not uniform. The backward areas have few primary schools.

(3)The curriculum of primary schools does not fulfil the need of the children. Children, though, are admitted in schools but when they fail to derive any benefit from it, their parents withdraw them from schools.


(4) Unpsychological methods of teaching are followed in primary schools, as a result children do not take interest in studies.

5) There is lack of teaching aids in primary schools, teaching is not being made interesting.

6) Most of the teachers of primary schools neither possess minimum educational qualification nor they are trained

(7) Teachers are not available for rural schools, least to talk about female teachers.

(8) Most of the primary schools are single teacher schools.

(9) Primary schools located in far flung areas run irregularly.

(10) Most of the Indians are poor. They are forced to get their children work rather study, right from the beginning.

(11) Most of the Indians are illiterate. They do not understand the importance of education.

Suggestions to check wastage and stagnation at the primary level:

(1) The responsibility of primary education should not be left entirely on the local bodies.

(2) Primary education should not be made compulsory in haste.

3) The number of primary school inspectors should be increased.


4) Those primary schools should be closed down which are not functioning properly.

5) The minimum duration of primary education should be made of 4 years.

6) Useful subjects should be given place in the curriculum of primary education.

7) Primary schools should be made the centre of entertainment, village reform and adult education.

8) Qualified and trained teachers should be appointed in primary schools

(9)The standard of training for the primary teachers should be raised. Special courses for the working teachers should be introduced.

(10) The service condition of the primary teachers should be improved and thein salaries should be increased.

(11) Efforts should be made to check the wastage and stagnation right from the beginning.

In the opinion of the Committee the reasons for shortcomings of Secondary education were as follows:

(1) Low educational standard of the middle schools.


(2) Expansion of the secondary education.

(3) Liberal attitude in promoting students to the next class before class X .

(4) Lack of well qualified and trained teachers

(5) Lack of interest for the University level higher education.

The Committee gave the following suggestions to overcome the shortcomings of secondary education:

(1) The curriculum for the middle schools should be reformed. Utilitarian subjects should be included in it and they should be expanded.

(2) Public examination should be held at the middle school level. Successful students should be educated in different trades according to their ability and need.

(3) Vocational and technical subjects should be included in the curriculum of secondary schools.

(4) Alternative courses should be organised at the high school level. Students should have options to select subjects according to their interests.

(5) Trained teachers with high educational qualification should be appointed ia the secondary schools.

(6) Proper teacher training programmes should be organized for the secondary teachers. Refresher Courses should be organized for the working teachers.

(7) Salaries of the teachers should be raised, their service condition should be improved and they should not be terminated in mid session.

In the opinion of the Committee the reasons for shortcomings in the higher education:

(1) Lack of proper coordination between the universities and their affiliated colleges.


(2) The curricula of the universities are theoretical

3) Honours courses are not being run properly in the universities and colleges.

(4) There is no proper organisation of libraries in the universities and colleges.

(5)All the intermediate pass students given admission in the universities and colleges.

6) The number of students in the universities and colleges is more than their capacity.

The Committee gave the following suggestions to overcome the shortcomings of higher education:

(1) Some universities should be developed solely for the teaching and research work, in the country

(2) Proper arrangement of libraries, laboratories and research work should be made in every university.

(3) Honours Courses should be started in some universities, the standard of which should be higher than the general courses.


(4) Industrial and technical education should be organised in the universities and college. Higher education should be made job oriented.

(5) Employment Bureau should be opened in the universities which should provide information about job opportunities to the students and help them in getting jobs.

(6) Strict rules for the admission of students in the colleges and universities should be formulated. Only the competent and able students should be admitted.

(7) Universities should have the responsibility to appoint teachers in the affiliated colleges. Well qualified teachers should only be appointed.