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Gender Inequality in School Context| Gender Inequality in School b.ed notes


Meaning of Gender Inequality 

Gender inequality means that men and women are not equal.

In the daily life men and women have to experience a lot of things.

Where if unequal treatment is given to any side it is termed as gender inequality.

Gender inequality refers to the," existence of unequal opportunities and rewards in society especially in education and this difference is created on the basis of gender."

Gender Inequality in Education


In other words, it is a social process in which individuals (men and women) are treated differently and disadvantageously for education under similar situations on the basis of gender.

For Example:

In a family, girls are not allowed to study.

But boys can go outside the city and study as per their need.

This is a kind of inequality that is being followed in the case of education in families.

Girls were provided with less participation opportunities as compared to their male counterparts and hence, it led to acceptance of gender inequality.


In usually rural communities, there has been acceptance of the viewpoint among individuals that girls are meant to carry out the household chores and school education is not meant for them.

They have to eventually get married and in their marital homes, they would not have any opportunities to make use of their educational skills, but carry out the household responsibilities. But these perspectives are changing and girls too are encouraged towards acquisition of education.

Gender School And Society b.ed notes 


1) Less Schools


As the number of schools is less.

There are limited number of seats for students.

So it is preferable to send boys to school rather then girls.

It is think that for boys education is more important then girls.

2) Poverty

In poor families, poverty is the biggest reason of gender inequality.

Parents think that boys have to earn for the family. So it is important for boys to study.

So they prefer to send boys to the school rather then the girls because of limited money with them.

The girls are usually discouraged from acquisition of education, due to limited financial resources. Their male siblings teach them, what they have learned in schools, primarily to enhance their basic literacy skills of reading, writing and numeracy.


3) Gender Stereotypes:

Various stereotypes exist in society:

Girls should stay at home.

They need not to study.

It is important for girls to do household work.

So due to this discrimination is done.

4) No transportation facilities:

In backward areas schools are far away and there is no adequate transport facility.

So parents do not think it is safe for girls to travel on their own.

So they do not send them to school.


5) Acceptance of Traditional Viewpoints

The individuals and communities usually possessed traditional viewpoints regarding the education of girls.

Particularly, when they possessed limited financial resources, then they believed that these resources should be saved for marriage of their girls and should not be spent on education.

Girls/ Women are not allowed to express their viewpoints and perspectives in the decision making matters.

6) School Infrastructure

Research has indicated that due to lack of appropriate infrastructural facilities, the students usually drop out, before their educational skills are completed. This applies particularly to the girls.


The important infrastructural facilities in schools that are essential to enhance the system of education are, furniture, equipment, materials, technologies, restrooms, civic amenities, transportation facilities, playgrounds, classrooms, library facilities, laboratories and overall school environmental conditions.

7) Discriminatory Treatment among Girls

It has been found that among the deprived, marginalized and socioeconomically backward sections of the society, the girls and women usually experience discriminatory treatment.

The discriminatory treatment among girls is depicted in number of aspects. These are :-

  • Acquisition of education,
  • attainment of employment opportunities,
  • empowerment opportunities,
  • deprivation in right to property,
  • deprivation from having a say in the decision making matters,
  • deprivation from expressing their viewpoints and perspectives,
  • discouraged from participation in social, economic, cultural and political activities,
  • remaining confined within the households, implementing household chores and taking care of the needs and requirements of their family members.

8) Occurrence of Criminal and Violent Acts


In rural as well as in urban communities, women and girls have experienced criminal and violent acts to a major extent.

These acts are, verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual harassment, discriminatory treatment, rape, acid attacks, female foeticide and female infanticide, child trafficking, domestic violence and neglect.

The experiencing of these acts on the part of girls and women, have an effect upon their Education, physical as well as psychological health.

Sometimes teachers, staff members and fellow student s have been involved in such acts.

9) Child Marriage

Child marriage is when marriage of the individuals takes place, when they are below 18 years of age.

Child marriage imposes negative effects upon the individuals, particularly girls. When girls are married at a young age, then they are normally deprived of acquisition of education, getting engaged in employment opportunities, and participation in other childhood activities.


They merely are required to remain within the homes, implement household responsibilities and take care of the needs and requirements of other family members.

10) Education of the Parents

Education of the parents is a crucial factor for promoting education among children.

When the parents are well educated and are engaged in reputed employment opportunities, then it is apparent that they will make provision of good quality education to their children.

Educated parents will also be aware of the fact that it is necessary to ensure that equal rights and opportunities should be provided to both boys and girls.

On the other hand, when the parents are not much educated nor possess the basic literacy skills of reading, writing and numeracy, then in such cases they do not recognize the significance of education and promote equal rights and opportunities for both girls and boys towards acquisition of education.

11) Lack of Interest in Studies


In the present existence, individuals, belonging to all categories and backgrounds have recognized the significance of education.

Academic learning is not easy. The individuals need to pay adequate attention, particularly when the teacher is teaching.

When the students do not possess adequate resources, when they do not acquire an efficient understanding of the academic concepts, then they are not able to develop an interest in studies.

Hence, lack of interest in studies is one of the crucial factors that causes gender inequality in education.

Role of Religion in Education of Gender Equality