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Socialization b.ed notes| Agencies of Socialization| Features of Socialization

Socialization b.ed notes



  • Socialization is the process of learning to behave in a way that is acceptable to society.
  • The activity of mixing with others.

This process functions at two different levels:

  1. Child learns at his own which is called internalization. He learns from the object around him.
  2. And the other in which child learn from others. It includes his parents, other family members, his friends etc.

  • Socialization is a life long process.
  • It changes a "human being" into a "social being".

Features/Characteristics of Socialization

1) Inculcates basic discipline :

Socialization inculcates basic discipline. A person learns to control his impulses. He may show a disciplined behavior to gain social approval.

2) Helps to control human behavior :

It helps to control human behavior. An individual from birth to death undergoes training and his behavior is controlled by numerous ways.

In order to maintain the social order, there are definite procedures or mechanism in society. These procedures become part of the man's/life and man gets adjusted to the society. Through socialization, society intends to control the behavior of its-members unconsciously.

3) Socialization takes place formally and informally :

Formal socialization takes through direct instruction and education in schools and colleges.

Family is, however, the primary and the most influential source of education. Children learn their language, customs, norms and values in the family

4) Socialization is continuous process :

Socialization is a life-long process. It does not cease when a child becomes an adult. As socialization does not cease when a child becomes an adult, internalization of culture continues from generation to generation.

Society perpetuates itself through the internalization of culture. Its members transmit culture to the next generation and society continues to exist.

5) Socialization is rapid if there is more humanity among the agencies of socialization:

Socializations takes place rapidly if the agencies' of socialization are more unanimous in their ideas and skills.


When there is conflict between the ideas, examples and skills transmitted in home and those transmitted by school or peer, socialization of the individual tends to be slower and ineffective.

Types of Socialization

Primary and Secondary Socialization 

1. Primary Socialization:


  • Primary socialization refers to socialization of the infant in the primary or earliest years of his life.
  • It is a process by which the infant learns language and cognitive skills, internalizes norms and values.
  • The infant learns the ways of a given grouping and is molded into an effective social participant of that group.
  • The norms of society become part of the personality of the individual.
  • The child does not have a sense of wrong and right. By direct and indirect observation and experience, he gradually learns the norms relating to wrong and right things. The primary socialization takes place in the Family.

2. Secondary Socialization:

  • The process can be seen at work outside the immediate family, in the peer group'.
  • The growing child learns very important lessons in social conduct from his peers.
  • He also learns lessons in the school.
  • Hence, socialization continues beyond and outside the family environment.
  • Secondary socialization generally refers to the social training received by the child in institutional or formal settings and continues throughout the rest of his life.

Importance of Socialization:


Every society is faced with the necessity of making a responsible member out of each child born into it. The child must learn the expectations of the society so that his behavior can be relied upon.


Socialization means transmission of culture, the process by which men learn the rules and practices of social groups to which belongs. It is through it that a society maintain its social system, transmits its culture from generation to generation.


From the point of view of the individual, socialization is the process by which the individual learns social behavior, develops his self. Socialization plays a unique role in personality development of the individual.


It is the process by which the new born individual, as he grows up, acquires the values of the group and is molded into a social being. Without this no individual could become a person, for if the values, sentiments and ideas of culture are not joined to the capacities and needs of the human organism there could be no human mentality, no human personality.


The child has no self. The self emerges through the process of socialization. The self, the core of personality, develops out of the child's interaction with others.


In the socialization process the individual learns the culture as well as skills like language which enables a child to become a participating member of human society.


Socialization inculcates basic disciplines, ranging from toilet habits to method of science. In his early years, individual is also socialized with regard to sexual behavior.


Socialization teaches skills. Only by acquiring needed skills individual fit into a society.

Agencies of Socialization


1) Family :

  • The family plays an outstanding role in the Socialization process.
  • A child first interacts with his family and first learning starts from family only.
  • Children can learn many things mainly through observation of their parents.
  • Family is a type of mini society and acts as a transmission belt between the individual and society.
  • Family plays an important role in the formation of personality of a child.
  • Leaning from family is an informal type of learning.

2) School :

The greatest agent of socialization is education institution which plays a significant role in the socialization of the citizens of a country.

Socialization in the school is formalized. There are planned time table and a diverse curriculum for the effective transmission of culture in all branches.


In school, certain values are taught to the child, such as honesty, punctuality, good social relation, etc to students.

3) Peer Group :

A peer group consists of friends and association who are of same age and social status. A child learns some very important lessons of life from his peer group. A child freely and spontaneously interact with each other.

4) Mass Media :

The Mass Media includes many forms of communication such as books, magazines, radio, television, movies, internet etc-that reach to large numbers of people without personal contact between senders and receivers. The mass media transmit information's and message which influence the personality of an individual to a great extent.


5) Religion :

Religion is less important in people's lives now than it was a few generations ago. Religion affects one's values and beliefs.

6) Neighborhood and Community :

Every family lives in a community.

This provides the base for an individual to extend social relations and interactions beyond the narrow limits of the home.

7) Occupation:

In the occupational world the individual finds himself with new shared interests and goals. He makes adjustments with the position he holds and also learns to make adjustment with other workers who may occupy equal or higher or lower position.


While working, the individual enters into relations of cooperation, involving specialization of tasks and at the same time learns the nature of class divisions. Work, for him, is a source of income but at the same time it gives identity and status within society as a whole.

National Education policy 1986 

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