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Theories of Motivation b.ed notes | What are the theories of Motivation in b.ed


What are the theories of Motivation in b.ed ?


Theories of Motivation 


Various psychologists have given their own views regarding the origin of motivation in humans, which is known as the theory of motivation.

The following are the theories of motivation given by psychologists:-

  1. Stimulus-Response theory
  2. Instinct theory
  3. Psycho-analytic theory
  4. Drive theory
  5. incentive theory
  6. Physiological theory
  7. need theory
  8. Activation theory
  9. Homeostatic theory
  10. Voluntaristic theory
  11. Achievement motivation theory
  12. Hygeine Motivation theory 
Theories of Motivation in b.ed

1. Stimulus-Response theory: 

This theory has been propounded by the behaviourists . This theory is a part of the theory of learning . In this, all human behavior is the response of the body as a result of stimuli. According to this principle, behavior is a specific application in itself, it has no connection with any kind of conscious-unconscious mind or mentality. This opinion is narrow and many experiences and facts have been ignored in it.

2. Instinct theory:

This theory has been propounded by psychologists McDougall, James and Burt . Basic instincts are related to the instincts inherent in a person since birth. Basic instincts are same in all human beings, their behavior should also be same, but it does not happen. Therefore this theory does not stand its test. Along with this, there is no similarity in the basic tendencies of human given by the psychologists, there is a difference in the number given by them. Different psychologists have different views on basic instincts.

3. Psycho-analytic theory:

Freud propounded this theory . Freud discussed only two basic instincts of life and death . Which leads him towards structural and destructive behavior respectively. At the same time, his unconscious mind affects his behavior unknowingly. According to this theory, there are two basic factors of motivation, first basic instincts and second unconscious mind. So this theory is not completely true. Because man's behavior is governed not only by his unconscious mind but also by his conscious mind.

4. Drive theory:

This theory was propounded by Hull . According to this theory, the physical needs of human beings create less tension in human beings, which in psychological language are called internal impulses, which motivate any human being to do certain types of work. cannot explain the higher cognitive behavior of motivation, so this theory is also not fully valid.

5. Incentive theory:

This theory has been propounded by Boles and Kaufman . According to this theory, man acts by being influenced by the object, situation and action in this world, all these elements of the environment have been encouraged. According to Bowles and Kaufman, there are two types of incentives – positive and negative. In positive, any person encourages to achieve his goal and in negative, any person creates obstacles to achieve his goal. It emphasizes only on the child factors of man, therefore this theory is incomplete in itself.

6. Physiological theory:

This theory was given by Morgan . According to this belief, many changes take place in the body. For some reason reactions also happen in the body. Motivation remains present in the origin when there is a reaction to any action. Environmental factors of man have been neglected in this theory, so it is also incomplete in itself.

7. Need theory:

This theory was given by Maslow . Maslow said that man's behavior is motivated by his needs. Maslow has divided human needs in a special order from low level to high level into these two parts. He says that until man fulfills the needs of one level, he does not step towards the other level. It is true that man fulfills his needs level by level, but it is not true that he fulfills all the needs in a correct order, so this theory is also incomplete.

8. Activation theory:

The person is active. One part of it is less and the other part is more active. Soulsbury, Malco and Ladsley have explained motivation on the basis of activation theory. This theory is based on natural and physiological aspect and explains motivation in a limited area.

9. Homeostatic theory:

According to Caitlin, there is a tendency in the animal to maintain stability. The body makes up for its deficiency with other elements. Physical and psychological stability means motivation.

10.Voluntaristic theory:

This opinion lays main emphasis on generality resolution. According to this opinion, human behavior is governed by desire. Desire is motivated by intellectual evaluation. In this way the will power develops. Here it is necessary to know that impulse and reflex are not motivated by desire.

11. Achievement motivation theory:

This theory was propounded by ' Devil McClelland '. According to this principle, in order to reach his goal, a man achieves his achievements by facing all kinds of challenges or difficult problems, such as getting a good government job by working hard day and night, students passing the examination.

12. Hygeine Motivation theory:

This theory was given by Frederick Herzberg . According to this principle, if the child is mentally and physically healthy then he will take interest in doing any work, if he is not healthy then he will not be interested or interested in doing any work at all.