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What is the concept of Guidance – Meaning and Definition of Guidance, Types of Guidance


Guidance and counseling b.ed notes 




Man is a socially intelligent and rational creature, on the basis of this he is completely different from other creatures of the world.

He establishes harmony with the environment and other creatures of the society only on the strength of intelligence, he has to face many problems in establishing this.

For which he has to take the help of his elders. On the basis of this co-operation, it is easy for him to achieve his objectives in drawing proper conclusions regarding the problems.

It is only on the basis of guidance that a person acquires knowledge about his abilities, capabilities and skills and achieves success in his field of work by making proper use of the knowledge capabilities inherent in him.

In this way, we can say that the purpose of guidance is not to solve the problems of the individual, but on the basis of this, the capabilities of the individual are to be made capable of making him enlightened. So that he will be able to find solutions to his problems.

Under the process of guidance, coordinated consideration of information related to educational profession and personal characteristics inherent in the person receiving guidance is necessary, without this information it is impossible to complete the process of guidance. To get information about the characteristics inherent in a particular person, his interests, abilities etc. have to be measured. Along with this, the knowledge of intelligence test, interest test, aptitude test etc. is of special importance to know about the abilities inherent in a person.

Just as education is a life-long process, similarly guidance is also a life-long process. From birth to death, wherever, in whatever form a person gets help, that help comes under guidance only.


We know the person who gives this type of help by the name of director or director. In school, at home, in society, teachers, principals, parents, co-workers, other family members, friends, associates, etc., all the people who provide help in solving any kind of problem are considered as guidance providers.

Through this process, help is given for the development of different aspects of the children in the same way as the help is provided by the teacher for the mental, physical and emotional development of the child. It is a comprehensive process and its scope is limited today.


What is the meaning of Guidance ?


In the controversial concepts of the current era, it is a concept that has been defined in various ways, yet guidance is generally accepted as a process by which one or several individuals are guided in some way or the other. assistance is provided.

On the basis of this code, there is ease in solving problems, making rational conclusions, taking desired decisions and achieving our goals and objectives.

It is only on the basis of guidance that a person gets to know about his abilities, his abilities, his skills and the characteristics related to his personality and he is able to make proper use of the characteristics inherent in him.


Definition of Guidance 


According to Shirley Hammerin:-

Helping an individual to identify himself in such a way that he can move forward in his life is called guidance.

According to Ruth Strong

The aim of guidance is to bring out the maximum development in the child in terms of existing possibilities.

According to skinner

Guidance is a process that helps young people to adjust to themselves, to others and to situations.


How many types of guidance are there ?

There are three types of directions:-


1. Educational Guidance 

2. Vocational Guidance 

3. Personal Guidance 


A. What is personal Guidance ?

In today's scientific and materialistic era, human life has become very complicated. The changing environment is creating many problems in front of him. These problems are related to every aspect of a person's life.

Due to not being able to solve these problems properly, he becomes worried and frustrated in solving those problems, In addition to educational and vocational guidance, assistance is provided to inculcate hope, confidence and enthusiasm in his life, to establish adjustment in his personal and social life, and to develop the ability to take decisions on his own in solving problems, whatever the problems of the individual.

All of them are kept under personal direction. The individual's personal life is closely related to his social life.

Therefore, the relation of personal guidance includes both social and personal aspects. That is, personal guidance is related to the physical, emotional, moral, economic, political, family etc. problems of the person.


Common Personal Problems:

1. Health and physical development problems.

2. Problems related to emotional behavior.

3. Problems related to sexual love marriage.

4. Problems related to family life and family relations.

5. Problems related to social relations.

6. economic problems.

7. Problems related to religion, character, ideals and values.


Objectives of Personal Guidance


1. To develop the ability of adjustment in the individual.

2. To provide help in obtaining information about problems related to personal life, finding their causes and effects and solving them.

3. To develop the ability to take decisions on one's own regarding problems related to personal life.

4. To help develop skills related to maintaining family relationships.

5. To help develop the ability to maintain good relations with members of the family and society.

6. To develop the ability to make proper use of one's abilities and capabilities.

7. To help in the development of prudent and sensible behavior in various different situations related to individual life.

8. Helping to maintain emotional balance.


Need for Personal Guidance:


1. To develop a healthy body and a healthy mind.

2. For happy family life.

3. To solve economic problems.

4. To develop the ability to make correct decisions in solving personal problems.

5. To develop the ability to adjust.

6. To solve marriage related problems.

7. To develop the skills of the individual.

8. To get happiness, peace and satisfaction in personal life.


1. For the development of a healthy body and a healthy mind:

It is very important to have a healthy body and a healthy mind for the development of a person's personality. Every kind of help is provided for the physical and mental development of the person through personal guidance.

2. For happy married life:


Family influences a person's life very much, today instead of joint families, nuclear families are in abundance, nuclear families have their own problems, which sometimes creates dissatisfaction, disappointment, tension and frustration in front of the person, to overcome all these, personal guidance is required.

3. To solve financial problems:


No person can be happy in the presence of economic problems, due to lack of money, the personal and family needs of the person cannot be fulfilled and the person remains frustrated and frustrated when the needs are not fulfilled. Through personal guidance, measures are given to solve the economic problems of the person.

4. To develop the ability to make correct decisions in solving personal problems:


Decision-making ability has special importance in a person's life, the person who is able to take the right decision at the right time to solve the problems coming in his life is successful in his life. Personal guidance helps a person a lot in this direction.

5. To develop the ability to adjust:


In order to become a successful member of the family, school, society and nation, it is necessary that there should be adjustment in the family, school, society and nation. Only with good adjustment, there is peace everywhere, there is co-operation and everyone makes progress and development in a loving environment. Individual guidance helps a lot in developing the capacity to adjust in the individual.

6. To solve marriage related problems:


In today's materialistic era, marriage has become a complex problem for a person, old beliefs related to marriage have changed, education, television, newspapers and magazines have created a lot of change in the person's thinking.

In the western countries, the day-to-day lockdown has affected the individuals, women empowerment and male ego have also created problems, it is possible to solve these problems only through personal guidance.

7. To develop the skills of the individual:


Many skills are required to lead a successful life. By developing these skills, the speed of a person's achievements can be increased. Skills can be developed in individuals by personal guidance.

8. To get happiness, peace and satisfaction in personal life:

There is a great need of happiness, peace and life in a person's life and he makes every possible effort to achieve them. But his desires are unlimited and all of them are not fulfilled due to which he remains unhappy, remains in tension, personal guidance is required to remove this tension.


B. What is Educational Guidance?


Educational guidance is very important in student life, every student has his own different problems, due to those problems, every student is not able to adjust himself in the school environment.

Therefore, educational guidance is necessary to create favorable conditions for the development of the student and to create opportunities for development and to create awareness and sensitivity in the student to develop the ability to adjust to the school environment. Through this, he can be able to choose the appropriate higher goals, conditions and tools of learning.


Definition of Educational Guidance

According to Johns:

“Educational guidance is the assistance provided to students in the selection and adjustment of the school curriculum, curriculum and activities related to school life.”


According to Ruthstrong,

the purpose of educational guidance is to assist the individual in selecting appropriate programs and making progress in them.


Objectives of Educational Guidance:


The purpose of educational guidance is to help the students in getting education so that they can get education according to their abilities and interests and get success in life. Jones has given the following objectives of educational guidance:

1. Guiding the student in getting education related information.

2. Guiding students in acquiring knowledge of interests and abilities.

3. Guiding the students in knowing the conditions for getting admission in the school of their interest.


4. To help the students to adjust with the social life of the school.

5. To guide the students in the selection of subjects, in the selection of useful books, in the selection of co-curricular activities and in the selection of good habits for study.

6. Guiding students in providing information about various competitive examinations.

7. To guide in familiarizing with the purpose and functions of different types of schools related to future education.

8. Guiding the students in the selection of vocation.


Needs of Educational Guidance:


1. Educational guidance is for students.

2. Educational guidance is for educational choices.

3. Educational guidance is meant to solve the problem of wastage barrier.

4. Educational guidance is for individual variation.

5. Educational guidance is for educational adjustment.

6. Educational guidance is meant to maintain the level of educational achievements.

7. Educational guidance is meant to solve the problem of indiscipline.


1. Educational Guidance is for students:

There are many such problems in front of the students which they cannot solve on their own and new problems can be solved by the teachers or their parents. Trained guidance service workers are required to help in solving these problems.

2. Educational Guidance is for educational choices:


Students have to make many types of choices, they have the problem of choosing school, course, course etc. First of all, they have to choose which school they want to study. Then they have to choose which course to take and which subjects to take. Students are not able to make these choices on their own. Then they need educational guidance in this subject.

3. Educational Guidance to solve the problem of wastage barrier is:


The problems of blocking wastage in our country have taken a formidable form, the Government of India is also trying to solve this, for which many commissions have been formed, but the expected success has not been achieved. In this problem, students stop studying in the middle without completing their studies. At the primary level of education, this problem has taken a huge form, it also has many forms-

a. Dissatisfaction with the school system

b. Unqualified teacher

c. Individual differences and inappropriate and difficult curriculum.

Therefore, students need proper guidance to deal with the problems of wastage and stagnation.


4. Educational Guidance is for Individual Variation:

According to psychology, every person is different from each other, due to population growth, the effect of differences is clearly visible. It has given rise to various problems in the field of education. Such as student dissatisfaction, lack of trained teachers, lack of discipline, etc. Therefore, individual differences have special importance in the field of education, not all people can get all types of education, their abilities, abilities and interests are different, so the selection of subjects should be done according to their individual differences. Should be done accordingly. For this, the need of direction is felt.

5. Educational Guidance is for educational adjustment:


When the student takes admission in the school, he gets a new environment. This environment is made up of teacher, partner, curriculum, teaching method, curriculum, co-curricular activities, etc. Since individual differences are found in the students. That is why all the students are not able to adjust themselves in this environment, many types of problems arise in front of them, which require educational guidance to solve them.

6. Educational Guidance is meant to maintain the level of educational achievements:


Today in the field of education, we see that its standard is falling day by day. There are many reasons for this, there are faults in both the teacher giving education and the student taking education. Today's social environment, the competence of teachers, the lack of responsibility of teachers, etc. are the main reasons for this. These reasons can be overcome only by guidance services. The decline in the level of educational achievements can be removed by finding out the reasons for their failures and through guidance services, and the level of education can be made higher by introducing new techniques of learning to the students.

7. Educational Guidance is meant to address the problem of indiscipline:


Indiscipline has emerged as a burning problem in the field of education. Incidents of strike, sabotage, looting etc. are seen in the field of education. The main reason behind this is students not getting proper business and no effective steps are being taken to solve the problems of the students. In such a situation, today's education prevents the student from adjusting in the society, so in such a situation, a solution can be found by guidance service through indiscipline.


(C) What is Vocational Guidance?

Vocational guidance helps the individual in the selection, preparation, entry and progress of suitable vocation according to his/her aptitude and interest. The work of vocational guidance is not limited only to the selection of occupation. But by whom a person's progress in his business is also determined. Thus, the work of vocational guidance extends from vocational choice to vocational success. According to the International Federation of Associations, vocational guidance is the assistance that is given to a person to make decisions regarding his career and to solve problems related to his career advancement with his personal characteristics to solve his career advancement problems. Vocational guidance is given keeping in view the relation of career opportunities of the individual with his personal characteristics.


Need for Vocational Guidance 

1. Variation in business.

2. Individual differences.

3. personality development

4. progress of society and nation.

5. Discipline problem.


1. Variations in Business:

First of all, people used to live their lives through agricultural business only, but as the population increased, humans developed, their needs kept increasing and many types of industries started coming. Therefore, at the school level itself, it is considered necessary that students should be assisted in choosing subjects according to their interest, so that coordination can be established between the expectations related to education and business or educational achievement and earning a living. Through vocational guidance, students can be provided information regarding their interests, their skills, abilities, aptitude etc. On the basis of information or according to one's ability to choose subjects, to develop necessary abilities, potential and skills for future business and get an opportunity to move forward in that business.


2. Individual differences:

The ability, interest, aptitude to work in every person is different. Everyone is different from each other in one way or the other. Without getting proper information about this diversity, it is not possible to make a definite statement regarding the aptitude, future progress or vocational compatibility of a person. Before selecting suitable people for any business, it is necessary to know the level and nature of individual differences, because a person with some special abilities is required for a typical business. Information obtained through various means can be collected in this context through guidance.


3. Development of Personality:

Through vocational guidance, a person can develop himself, a person chooses a business on the basis of his ability, ability and interest and makes a lot of effort to complete it so that his personality can be developed.


4. Progress of Society and Nation:

Through vocational guidance, a person proves to be a medium of progress of the society and the nation, as there has been a substantial difference in the family, economic, religious conditions of any society. More importance is given to the level of the person, money and material resources. To get respect from your neighbors, relatives and acquaintances, today it is necessary that a person's standard of living should be good. Respect of the person, his dignity and he should get social importance. Despite this, a good opportunity can be found for population growth and availability of limited opportunities. So that they can progress the society and the nation. All these require vocational guidance.


5. Discipline problem:

The problem of discipline is overcome by vocational guidance. When we become completely dependent in a business, then we are bound in the discipline, by which we remain within a limited range or scope, through our full dedication or ability towards that business. Start doing that work. So that we can get some benefit from them in future.