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What is textbook? Need and Importance of textbook b.ed notes


What is textbook? | Meaning of Textbook 


When the knowledge of a subject is presented in an organized manner in the form of a book at one place, it is given the name of a textbook. 

The National Curriculum Framework 2005 considers a textbook as part of a package of teaching-learning materials and states that "a textbook is an auxiliary material used as a guide to enable students to actively interact with text, ideas, objects, environment and people." connects and builds their own understanding within them, not something that serves as a final product of knowledge to fill the child's mind."

Definition of Textbook


National Curriculum Framework (2005) and Learning Without Burden 1953 recognized that textbooks dominate the classroom in most of the schools in India, they also believed that textbooks are only storehouse of information and teachers are conveying this information to the students through these textbooks. 

Text books have the same place in the education system as the holy books in our religions. 

It would not be wrong to say that the process of teaching-learning begins and ends with the textbook itself, even organizing various types of activities between the teacher and student, the end-examination, etc. are all textbook centered.

Because of its overstated importance, the textbook has taken on a glorified and normative profile. The textbook has become a symbol of authority that is hard to discredit.


According to the National Curriculum Framework 2005, the textbook has been created on the basis of the basic principles in India, but give autonomy to the school and the teacher, so that it can come to the class level and use different types of experiments such as learning speed, content and concrete example teaching, method subject.

The National Curriculum Framework agreed that textbooks should be prepared in such a way that teachers and students are inspired to do creative work. 

Teachers and students should not be subjected to textbooks. While preparing the textbook, special attention should be paid to the fact that it should be as decentralized as possible and the state, Student-related activities should be included at the district block level so that the policy of flexibility can be adopted. 

Emphasize learning and learning by understanding rather than burdening the subject matter in the textbook and help students to increase their ability to understand based on their personal experiences.


Because the teacher is responsible for the teaching-learning process and it depends on his freedom and autonomy whether he makes the textbook a part of the teaching-learning material or he considers it as the only source.

According to Harolikar- "Text-book is the sum total of knowledge, habits, feelings, actions and tendencies."

In the words of Hal-Quest- "The textbook is a record of systematic racial thought for instructional purposes.

Bacon says , - "The text-book is carefully prepared by experts for class-use. It also comes equipped with teaching aids."

Need and Importance of textbook 


It has an important place in the school. It was more important in the past as well and it is still today. It also enjoys the popularity of the general public, because the textbook is specially prepared for the students and teachers in the school or class, because the textbook is specially prepared for the students and teachers in the school or class, which Presents the syllabus of any one subject or related subjects. 

The need and importance of textbooks is accepted for the following reasons -

  • According to the syllabus prescribed in the text-book, organized knowledge of the subject is found at one place.
  • Text-books act as a guide for teachers and students.
  • Through textbooks, students and teachers get information about how much subject matter has to be studied and taught for a class level.
  • By this, the time of students and teachers is saved.
  • The mental level of students is not high enough to assimilate the material taught in school in one go. They have to read and revise the content many times. Hence a textbook is required.
  • The knowledge of qualified teachers is also disorganized. Therefore, the textbook is helpful in arranging it. Similarly, it is helpful to enhance and complete the incomplete knowledge of the students.
  • Students get inspiration in acquiring knowledge through self-study through text-books.
  • Class work and evaluation is possible on the basis of textbook.
  • On the basis of textbooks, in every state, it is possible to teach a certain course in every class and the students can be evaluated collectively.
  • Textbooks help the students to compile the content.
  • Through these, the memory and reasoning power of the students are developed.
  • Text-books are useful for both retarded and gifted children.
  • It is helpful to the students at the time of examination.
  • Textbooks make the teacher aware of the teaching tasks according to the class level.
  • In the text-book, the subject matter is presented in a logical manner, which makes the subject matter simple and accessible to the students.
  • Text-book also removes many shortcomings of class-teaching. At the time of class-teaching, the teacher is not able to give individual attention to all the students (so with the help of text-books, students can study with individual interest and pace).
  • Textbooks provide valuable ideas and useful experiences of scholars to teachers and students so that they may be able to take advantage of these experiences.
  • There is uniformity in study-teaching through textbooks.
  • The syllabus of the subject is fully explained in the textbooks in which the teacher can provide suitable learning experience.
  • The need and importance of textbooks has also been accepted by various education commissions.

Main characteristics of a good textbook 


A good textbook must have the following qualities -

  • Presentation of the subject according to the mental level of the children.
  • Organization of subject matter logical and psychological.
  • Simplification of the subject with the help of explanation, explanation, examples etc.
  • Simplicity, clarity, originality and fluency in language-style.
  • Ability to develop students' own interest in reading.
  • The references of other authors and scholars should be clear, reliable and valid.
  • The cover page should be pictorial, attractive and purposeful.
  • The printing should be neat, clean and clear.
  • Size convenient.
  • Lessons sized according to the level and abilities of the children.
  • Presentation of content in accordance with the teaching objectives and values.
  • Emphasis on latest events, facts and problems related to the subject matter.
  • Presentation of pictures, maps, diagrams etc. appropriate to the subject matter.
  • Inclusion of table of contents, glossary, bibliography, instruction manual etc.
  • Thinking and presentation of new ideas.
  • Not hurting anyone's sentiments by the subject matter means attention to the spirit of secularism.
  • Inclusion of exercise questions for self-evaluation by the students at the end of the chapter.

Evaluation of textbooks 


Evaluation of textbooks depends on many points. The main points of which are as follows:-

1. Purpose of education - 

The important purpose of education is to fulfill the knowledge and philosophy and considering the national values ​​and ideals as heritage, they should be increased in the society and fulfill the social aspirations.

Because the text book is the mirror of the curriculum, national values ​​and ideals can be generated in the students through the teaching activities given in the text book. 


The textbook should be evaluated on the basis of national values, social aspirations, its reflection and development. 

The objectives of education are also prepared according to the level and subject of education, so it is necessary that while analyzing the text book, whether the objectives of both these levels have been fulfilled or not, it is also evaluated. 

The objective is to create character and responsible citizens and there can be subject related objectives such as the ability of students to express themselves, To develop attitudes and to develop subject-related skills such as thinking power, reasoning power, concrete and abstract thinking etc. Evaluating all these comes under the analysis of objectives associated with textbook education.


2. Creation and presentation of the subject matter - 

The composition and presentation of the text book is related to the subject matter. 

The structure and presentation of a language related textbook will be completely different from the structure and presentation of a science related textbook because the nature of both the subjects is different from each other. 

While in the design and presentation of the language textbook, the emphasis will be on the development of language skills in the students, while in the science textbook, the emphasis will be on practical development. 

While analyzing the textbook, more attention needs to be paid to the fact that the structure of the subject matter should start from simple to difficult concepts, these concepts should be explained with the help of more and more examples, examples related to the life of the students.


In addition, one concept may prove to be helpful in understanding another concept, in textbook analysis, attention should be paid to the fact that the text is presented in an interesting way, such as through a story, By illustration or by experiment. 

There is an explosion of knowledge in today's society and new knowledge is being created every day and these should be included in the textbooks. 

The textbook should also be evaluated on this basis whether the new concepts included are related to each other or not.


3. Mental development of the child - 

Text-book structure should mostly be done on the basis of the level of mental development of the child, the subject-matter in the text-book should be selected according to the mental level of the child. 

It would not be wrong to say that the text-book should be a participant in the mental development of the children, the power of concrete-abstract reasoning should be encouraged in the text-book. 

Text books should act as seeds for the creative and creative development of children. 

Apart from this, textbooks can play an important role in the development of linguistic competence, social maturity, physical efficiency, etc. A teacher should evaluate the textbook on all these points.


4. Layout and composition - 

The layout and structure of the textbook is an important point of evaluation. By design and composition, we mean the texture of the textbook. The texture of the textbook includes its weight, letters of printing, size, etc. 

When the teacher evaluates the textbook, he should pay utmost attention to the fact that the textbook is very It should not be heavy, the printing should be beautiful, the letters should be according to the age of the students and the size should be normal so that the students do not face any kind of inconvenience. 


In recent times, it has come to the fore that the burden of books is increasing in the schools due to which physical problems are arising in the students. 

Professor Yashpal in his report "Learning without Burden" has said that the double burden on the students is increasing, one mental and the other physical, due to which the disinterest in education has increased among the students. 

Therefore, as much as possible, the text-book should be made less weighty and more attractive.


5. Development of mental level - 

Analysis of the subject matter should be done on the basis of mental level of the students. By mental level, it is meant that the subject matter which is capable of the mental capacity of the students or they do not have difficulty in understanding such subject matter should be included in the textbook. 

According to Piaget, the growth of the mental level is in four stages and within the appropriate students of the level, that kind of ability or ability is developed should be kept so that the students get an opportunity to develop concrete thinking, besides this, the textbook should be prepared keeping in mind the socio-economic environment of the students. Help in increasing the mental level of the students.


6. Appropriate language and style - 

A good textbook always conveys ideas and material to its readers in appropriate language and style. 

The language and writing style in the textbooks should be according to the age, mental level and interest of the students. If the text-book is for younger classes, it should be presented in the form of story, talk, cartoon, etc. 

While writing the textbook, simple language should be used so that children can easily understand and it should be according to their linguistic ability. 


The choice of words and sentences should be based on the mental level of the child. More illustrations, articles, etc. should be used in text-books. 

So that it is easy for the students to understand, each subject has its own nature and structure and text books should be written keeping this in mind. 

For example, the basis of science subject is facts, principles, rules, experiments, They are based on tests and results, so they should have maximum space in the text-book. 

Even the symbols, definitions, terminology used in that subject which are universally accepted should be used while writing the text book. The teacher can increase the usefulness of the textbooks by evaluating the textbook on these points also.


The Education Commission (1964-66) has written in its report that the person writing the text-book should be an expert in his subject and pay utmost attention to many things such as writing, printing, illustration etc. He should get help in teaching-learning to read.