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Causes of Individual Differences b.ed notes


Causes of Individual Differences Heredity and Environment 


Causes of Individual Differences 

Of all the types of individual differences that we have studied, the first two, i.e., physical and intellectual differences are more influenced by heredity and less by the environment, while the other differences are more influenced by the environment and less by heredity. 

Both these factors also affect the racial differences. Age and maturity also have an effect on all of these .

In this way, basically two things affect individual differences –


1) Heredity

2) Environment

Apart from these, other factors affecting individual differences are given below. 

How these factors affect individual differences, its explanation is as follows-

1. Heredity and Individual Differences 

In all the types of individual differences given above – appearance, color and intelligence are more influenced by heredity. The appearance and color of the parents also comes in the children. 

But here a natural question arises in the mind that if this is true then all the children of the same parents should be equal, there is absolutely no possibility of difference between them, but it does not happen. Not all children of the same parents, not even twins, are alike.


Then, why this difference? To clarify this difference, psychological researches have proved that the child is not only influenced by the parents, but can also be influenced by Grand Father and Grand Mother and maternal grandparents. 

Not only this, even among the different qualities of the same parent, it is not necessary that all the children should be equally influenced by those qualities.

In some the qualities of the mother are more and in others the qualities of the father. In all these respects no two children can ever be alike. Sequencing of chronic diseases is also done by lineage. 


Mother or father has a disease, the same can come in the children. Yes, one thing is certain that the deformity of the limbs does not have a special effect on the children, for example, it does not happen that the child of lame parents is also lame.

If we look at the effect of heredity on the body and intelligence, then generally the eldest child of any family will be found vigorous from the point of view of health and weak from the intellectual point of view , while the youngest child is physically weak among all his siblings. And will be intellectually sharp . Why this? 

This is because in the beginning the parents are not as mature as they are from the physical point of view, intellectually.


Gradually, they become physically weak and intellectually mature and the same effect falls on their children. This is not an eternal rule, there can be exceptions and reasons for that.

2. Environment and Individual Differences 

In addition to physical and intellectual differences, the social, emotional, moral, religious type of differences are more influenced by the environment. All languages etc. are learned from the environment. 

Similarly, the relation of customs etc. is also more than the environment. The children born in Gujarat learn Gujarati, whereas the Mewari living in Mewar. Why ? Because almost the same languages are spoken there.


Similarly, if you take it from the moral point of view, then what is considered good in a particular region and community, the same thing can be considered bad in another region and community. 

Somewhere having more than one marriage is considered good and somewhere bad. All these beliefs are influenced by the environment.

Inheritance has more effect on looks, color, intelligence etc. but it does not mean that environment does not affect them at all. Slight changes are possible in them due to the influence of the environment. 

If a child is kept in such an environment from the very beginning where he thinks about something from an intellectual point of view, then there is definitely a slight change in his intelligence.


Similarly, the color becomes somewhat fair in cold climate and black in hot climate. It should also be clear here that due to the influence of the environment only a slight change is possible in appearance, colour, intelligence, physical constitution etc., not much.

Black can not be made fair and white can be made black or intelligent and intelligent can be completely stupid only by the influence of the environment. 


In short, in relation to the individual differences that are caused by the influence of heredity and environment, it can be said that whatever things are found in the child from the time of birth, the effect of heredity is more on them, while those that he learns later. Yes, they are learned more through the influence of the environment.

Backward castes living in backward areas still fear God, consider stealing a sin, while many of the people living in big cities do not mind it at all. It is all the effect of the environment.