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Elementary Education in India | Status of Primary Education in India


Primary Education in India


Elementary Education in India 


Primary schools in India provide education from class 1 to class 8. The children in these classes are generally in the age group of 6 to 15 years. 

It is the next stage after kindergarten (pre-nursery, nursery and upper kindergarten). 

The next stage after primary education is middle school (grades 7th to 10th).

Most of the schools in North India teach English, Hindi, Mathematics, Environmental Science and General Knowledge to children from classes I to III. 

In class 4th and 5th the subject of Environmental Science is replaced by General Science and Social Studies. However, some schools may introduce this concept in class 3 itself.


Some schools may also introduce a third language in grade 4 or grade 5. Sanskrit, Urdu and the local state language are the third most common languages taught in Indian schools.

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body for school education in India. 

NCERT provides support and technical assistance to many schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies.

Contemporary India and Education 

Status of Primary Education in India 


The status of primary education in India is still facing some challenges. Unauthorized education of children in India can greatly affect the quality of their education.

The shortage of teachers is also a major problem in India. There is a shortage of teachers in most of the schools and in some places there is also a problem of corruption in the selection of teachers. 

Education systems also differ in different states, due to which children get different opportunities for education.


However, a lot of work is being done by the Government of India in the field of education, such as the implementation of the National Education Policy 2020, children are getting more opportunities. 

Apart from this, the government is also recruiting teachers in the schools which can provide more education opportunities to the children.

Also, various organizations are also contributing in the field of education in India. Some of those organizations work in the field of research and teaching, while others set up schools to educate children.


Some progress is also being seen in the field of primary education. Various schemes are being run by the government in India to send children to school and give them education. 

For example, free education is being provided by the government in schools, so that even poor children can get opportunities for education.

Also, progress is being seen in India in the field of digital education. Through the digital education schemes launched by the government, children get education even from remote areas.


Apart from this, private schools and organizations in India have also contributed in the field of education. 

These organizations provide different levels of education to the children along with providing more opportunities for education. 

With the help of such organizations also progress is being seen in the field of primary education in India.

Society will also have to contribute in this. People have to be made aware that why it is necessary to educate children and why they should be encouraged to send them to school. Along with this, the society should also give importance to the education of the children.


The various bodies that govern the school education system in India are as follows:-

1. State Government Boards, in which most of the Indian children are enrolled.

2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).

3. Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) Board.

4. National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS).


5. International Baccalaureate Program or Cambridge International Examinations.

6. Islamic seminary whose boards are affiliated to local state governments or autonomous or Darul Uloom Deoband.

7. Autonomous schools like Woodstock School, Auroville, Patha Bhavan and Anand Marg Gurukula.

Primary/secondary education in India is divided into -

primary (1st to 5th grade), 

upper primary (6th to 8th grade), 

lower secondary (9th to 10th grade), and 

higher secondary (11th and 12th grade) is separated.


Kindergarten: Nursery – 3 years, Lower Kindergarten: (LKG) – 4 years, Upper Kindergarten: (UKG) – 5 years.

These are not mandatory as per government rules, but are recommended before joining the 1st standard.

1st grade: 5 years or 6

2nd grade: 7 years

3rd grade: 8 years

4th grade: 9 years

5th grade: 10 years

6th grade: 11 years

7th grade: 12 years 8th grade: 13 years

9th grade: 14 years

10th grade: 15 Years

Class XI: 16 Years

Class XII: 17 years 



Primary education is an essential part of the educational journey. It helps lay a strong foundation for further education and equips children with basic knowledge and skills that will benefit them later in life. 

Primary education also instills values such as respect, discipline and responsibility – vital traits for a successful future.

It is important to recognize the underlying meaning of primary education, which goes beyond the traditional educational objectives. It imparts valuable life lessons to the students and shapes them into better contributors to the society.