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Educational Philosophy of Rousseau b.ed notes


Educational Philosophy of Rousseau b.ed notes 

Describe the Educational ideology of Rousseau

Educational Thoughts of Rousseau

As far as Rousseau's philosophy of education and his contribution in the field of education is concerned, his name comes after Plato and Comenius in the western world. Once upon a time, his educational ideas had created a revolution in the education world, but the reality is that as fast as his educational ideas were accepted in the education world, after a few days, they were rejected as fast.


Concept of Education: 

Rousseau considered education as a natural process. His explanation was that learning is the innate nature of man, so he should be allowed to learn according to his nature. There is no doubt that the desire to learn and the power to learn is acquired from birth, but he learns only when there is an interaction between him and the teacher. That is why today education is accepted as a social process.

Aims of Education – 

Rousseau divided the education period into four levels and fixed different objectives for the education of all the four periods. We can order the objectives of education fixed by them in this way: physical development, sensory training, intellectual development, emotional development, art of living, protection of rights and formation of independent personality.

If Rousseau's thoughts related to purpose are understood carefully, then there are some defects in it from today's point of view. They emphasized the achievement of any one objective at one level of education. He did not understand the need of education of governance and citizenship, whereas today it is a big demand and he did not give any place to the moral and character and spiritual development of man. And the situation today is that people are fed up with materialism and are turning to spirituality in search of real happiness and peace. Today, through education, emphasis is laid on the development of all the three aspects of man, natural, social and spiritual.


Curriculum of Education – 

The attempt made by Rousseau to divide human beings into different age levels from the point of view of development has its importance in the world of education, but today's scholars completely agree with the purpose and curriculum of fixed education at different age levels. are not. to the children. The talk of their education by keeping them away from the society, the talk of focusing only on physical development from birth till the age of 5 years, the talk of training of the senses for 12 years and then the talk of language, maths, history, geography and industry education, is acceptable to today's scholars.

Methods of Teaching: 

Rousseau's effort to remove artificiality from the field of education is commendable. He said that the education of children should be done by keeping them in the lap of nature, away from the artificial and defective environment of the society. Back to Nature was their first slogan. He opposed the instruction and narration method of making children aware of the duties of adults by considering them as small adults. He said that a child is a child, not a small adult, his strength, interests and inclinations are different from adults. Therefore, the burden of ideals should not be put on him, he should be allowed to learn by doing independently. Learning by doing was his second slogan. Today everyone accepts this thing of his.


Discipline – 

The slogan of complete freedom in the field of discipline can be attributed to Rousseau. Children cannot be allowed to do whatever they want at any time, this will only lead to chaos. Their idea that nature itself will punish children for their bad deeds and they will stop doing those things which will cause them pain, is not logical. The result of thousands of years of human experience is its social system and morality. For the proper development of man, he has to be kept in social bonds.

Teacher – 

In opposition to society and social institutions, it cannot be said appropriate to consider the teacher as flawed by Rousseau. Their idea that the teacher's job is only to help children in their natural development is also flawed. The teacher must prepare the children to move ahead of them as soon as possible by introducing them to human achievements. Yes, Rousseau's. It is accepted by all today that the teacher should not act as an instructor, but as a guide.

Student - 

Rousseau is the first person of this era who raised the voice of individual's freedom. Even in the field of education, he respected the personality of the children and insisted on arranging their education according to their interest, inclination and ability. Before Rousseau, education was either teacher-centered or curriculum-centered, Rousseau insisted on making it child-centered. Today, the personality of children is respected in the education of any country in the world.


School – 

It is accepted by Rousseau that schools should be built in the picturesque lap of nature, away from polluted society. Education is the only way to remove the defects of the society. Therefore, the environment of the schools should be ideal, should be free from the vices of the society. But their talk of providing independent facilities to the children to develop only according to their nature is very strange. If there is no time table in the schools, their work system is not fixed and the teacher does not know what, why and how to do, then no arrangement will be possible in the schools and we will treat the children like an animal. Will not be able to make anything more. The specialty of a man's work is his well-planned work, man could not progress on the path of development by unplanned works.

Other Aspects of Education - 

Rousseau wanted to free education from the bondage of church (religion) and state. As far as freeing education from the bondage of the church is concerned, today the whole world agrees with his opinion, but there is no alternative to free it from the bondage of the state. Today it is considered the responsibility of the state to make arrangements for education. But with this amendment that the state will arrange it keeping the interests of both the individual and the state in front.

Rousseau laid a lot of emphasis on the need for mass education, but he did not give any opinion about who would arrange for this education. Above all raised the slogan of freeing education from the control of church and state. Today, Rousseau's ideas regarding mass education are not valid. Today, the meaning of mass education goes to general compulsory and free education for all men and women and it is considered the duty of the state to arrange it.


Rousseau's ideas regarding women's education are also not valid today. They were in favor of teaching only homework to women, while today it is emphasized on giving equal opportunities to all men and women to get general education compulsorily and specialized and higher education according to their interest, inclination, ability and need. .

Wanted to teach him the art of living and emphasized on his practical development under it, but he could not think of making any separate arrangements for his education at that time. Today, emphasis is laid on starting vocational education after general education and for this, emphasis is laid on the establishment of separate educational institutions.

There is no uniformity in the views of the Russians regarding religious and moral education. On the one hand, in the book Social Contract, he has raised his voice against the exploitation of the general public in the name of religion and morality, and on the other hand, in his book 'Emil', he prescribes religious and moral education for both Emil (hero) and Sophia (heroine). Have done The truth is that he was not anti-religion, he was against the exploitation of innocent people by the priests in the name of religion.

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