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Determinants Curriculum Development | Determinants of Curriculum b.ed notes


Determinants and Motives of Curriculum Development

If we want children to be intelligently independent, perhaps it is necessary for them to assimilate a process of construction along with their initial knowledge base. So far, our education system has placed too much emphasis on the knowledge base, which is considered to be an inadequate accumulation of information. If we wish to emphasize the principles of the process and organization of knowledge construction, perhaps we have to give our children as wide an experience as possible through the curriculum. From this point of view, the issue of selection and organization of curriculum content becomes very important for the development of creativity and independence in thinking and action.

The curriculum has to be designed in such a way that it meets the struggle against inequality and meets the social, cultural, emotional and economic needs of the learner. This will not happen simply by adopting shoddy elements or trivialities in the overall educational endeavour. If to meet the multi-faceted challenges of the present and future, then keeping in mind the relevance, equality and excellence of the other three pillars of the curriculum, along with excellence, 

some topics will have to be considered, which are as follows


(1) Teachers Experiences and Concerns

The experiences and concerns of the teachers also contribute positively to the development of the curriculum. Although the number of teachers actively participating in curriculum design is very small, Whereas the contribution of teachers in implementing the curriculum is very important in the education process. Perhaps this is the reason why teachers are considered as 'curriculum carriers' rather than 'curriculum creators'. The idea of school-based curriculum development is gaining popularity and as the idea of decentralization pervades schools, greater involvement of teachers in the process will be expected in the future. This will not be possible unless the teachers are really empowered for this changed role. The nation should have full faith in the experiences of the teachers while preparing the curriculum. The concept of competent teacher community has led to reinterpretation of teaching. According to this, teaching work will emerge as a more reflective and thoughtful profession.

(2) Fixation of National Integrity and Preservation of Cultural Heritage

The content of the school curriculum is also expected to inculcate and nurture among the students a sense of pride in being an Indian through a due understanding of the impact of Indian civilization on world civilization and the impact of world civilization on Indian civilization's thought and action. The reinforcement of national identity and unity is intimately linked with the study of the cultural heritage of India, which is rich in a variety of color forms. In this context, education has to play two types of role together, in which dynamism will be involved along with tradition protection.

(3) Acknowledging Social-Cultural Perspectives of Students

There are innumerable such local traditions in India, there are also many communities and individuals who are repositories of information about various forms of India's environment and knowledge related to their management, which they have received from generations in the form of traditional knowledge as well as from their practical experience. Have done School tradition can also be added to this.


(4) Education for Equalization of Society: 

Education for Girls, Special Needs and Disadvantaged Group Students 

Education is still striving to provide equal opportunities for quality education to all while playing an important role in reducing and eradicating social discrimination. Equality of opportunity means ensuring that everyone receives an adequate education at a pace and method that suits them. From this point of view, it is essential to pay special attention to the education of the underprivileged, socially discriminated groups and children facing physical challenges. As a result, curricular and instructional strategies will have to pay more attention to the education of girls and all forms of gender discrimination and gender bias will have to be removed from the textbooks and the process of teaching them. Therefore, it is now necessary that such an effective curriculum should be prepared keeping in mind both boys and girls equally.Develop and implement strategies that nurture generations of boys and girls who are equally capable, empathetic to each other, and who share in each other's concerns as equal partners, not against each other.

(5) Alternative of Inclusive Education in Curriculum

In the last phase of the 20th century, a new concept of inclusion in education was developed, according to which it was considered inhuman to separate any child from normal children on any basis and arrange for his education separately and this subject was seriously thought about at the national and international level. In 1989, there was a conference on the rights of children in the United Nations (UNO) and it was decided that on any basis with children in any field, even if it is the field of education, There will be no discrimination. In 2001, the White Paper on Special Needs Education 61 Building an Inclusive Education and Training System, 2001 was circulated. In this, in relation to inclusive education, it has been said that inclusive education accepts that all learners are different in some way and their learning needs are also different and that these differences are valuable to us and are a normal part of human experience. Therefore, we respect and accept the differences among learners, be it age, gender, atheism, language, class or disability.


(6) Inclusion of Environmental Subjects

In addition to other determinants of curriculum, some critical thinking topics should also be taken care of under the curriculum. The ever-increasing environmental pollution is a matter of concern, so first of all environmental protection must be given a place in the curriculum. UNESCO, considering environmental education as a very important subject, had emphasized its essentiality in the curriculum. Similarly, when in the new National Education Policy, 1986, while conceiving the National Curriculum Framework, it talked about a common core, then environmental protection was also included in it.

(7) Relevance and Specificity of Educational Objectives for Concerned Level

For determining the curriculum, for which level the curriculum is being prepared and what educational objectives are required to be determined for that specific level, it should be considered because in view of the general goals of education, there is a need for classification of different objectives at different levels. such as the developmental stages of the child, the nature of knowledge in general and in relation to the subject area of the curriculum in particular, and the socio-political milieu of the child. In addition, there should be specific objectives that can be used as guidelines for the selection and organization of course material.

(8) Learner's Characteristics

The learner has a special place in the teaching-learning process. The teaching-learning process can be successful only when the curriculum helps in the all-round development of the student. The main objective of education is to make all round development of the student which can be possible only through curriculum. Therefore, the curriculum should be such that it helps the students to meet all the needs of life and overcome the problems. The curriculum should strive for the all round development of the learner.


Every student/learner is different on the basis of interests, needs, abilities and capabilities. Such a provision should be made in the curriculum that every student can achieve his objectives without any hindrance.

(9) Forms of Knowledge and Its Characterization in Different School Subjects

Curriculum should be such that it provides such experiences to the learner, which gradually increases his capacity of reasoning, reinforces his knowledge base and makes him sensitive to others. Knowledge and understanding provide the necessary background for curriculum choices and subject matter proposals.

Knowledge can be thought of as organized experience that creates meaning through language, thought-streams or structures of concepts through which we succeed in making sense of our world. Curriculum is a plan for the development of those abilities through which selected educational goals can be achieved. The dimensions of human capabilities are very wide and we cannot develop them all through education. Therefore, we have to accommodate various forms of knowledge in a harmonious manner in the curriculum.

(10) Preservation of Values

India is one of the most originated experiments of spiritual coexistence, so education about social, moral and spiritual values and religions cannot be left entirely to the home and community. It is, therefore, necessary that the Indian school curriculum inculcates the core values and includes awareness of all the major religions of the country as a central component.


Value education has always meant inculcating desirable behaviour. For this reason, students often hide their true feelings and thoughts without any commitment and just talk about moral values in youth. The need, therefore, is to move away from talk to experience and reflection where there can be no simple proposition or approach to ethical behavior.

Apart from these intellectual characteristics, other characteristics of the learner are also important determinants for curriculum design. Therefore, while the objectives of the curriculum at the pre-primary, primary, upper primary and secondary levels, These facts will have to be carefully considered if the content, strategies and experiments etc. are determined. This fact has to be understood seriously by the curriculum makers and curriculum implementers so that appropriate and adequate learning experiences can be provided to the students. For example, if we talk about the study of language in the curriculum, then in the first two years of the primary level, such an effort should be made in the curriculum so that they can develop the correct process and habit of silent reading with the understanding of legible writing and correct spelling. . The bilingual abilities of the students at the upper primary stage have to be emphasized to enable them to acquire real life skills and use them in future daily life.