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Characteristics of Individual Differences | Influence of Individual Differences on Learning


Influence of Individual Differences on Learning 

Characteristics of Individual Differences:

The following are the characteristics of individual differences:

1. Personality: - Under individual differences, we do not establish differences on the basis of any one characteristic, but differentiate on the basis of complete personality. Hence it is said that a certain person is an introvert and a certain person is an extrovert.

2. Aspects of life:- Every person naturally wants change. He achieves this change by learning new tasks. In this way learning becomes his development. From birth till old age, the child remains involved in the changes, learning and development of life. Whatever he achieves through these helps in setting him apart from other people.

3. Inequality in equality:-  According to Dr. S.S Mathur, similarities are found in all children on the following five grounds -


(1) Intelligence

(2) Basic tendencies

(3) Socialization

(4) Rights and duties

(5) Nature:

Still, there are various types of inequalities in all human beings.

Individual differences affect the learning process and its achievement. Intelligence and personality are the basis of individual differences. The learning process is affected by these.

Individual differences can be detected through tests, personal history methods and group records. On the basis of these results, teachers and principals decide their opinion about the student.

Causes of Individual Differences 

There are many reasons for individual differences, the most important of which are the following: -


1. Heredity: - The first basic reason for individual differences is heredity. Rousseau, Pearson and Galton are strong supporters of this cause. He says that the only reason for physical and mental differences of individuals is their heredity. 

Therefore, the children of healthy, intelligent and characterful parents are also healthy, intelligent and characterful. 

Mann has also accepted heredity as the reason for individual differences and has written - “All of our lives begin in the same way. Then what is the reason that as we grow up, we become different? One answer to this is that we all have different heredity.

2. Environment :- The second basic reason for individual differences is environment. Psychologists argue that according to the kind of social environment a person lives in, his behaviour, lifestyle, ethics etc. 

Therefore, it is natural to have differences among people living in different social environments. The same thing can be said about physical and cultural environments. The inhabitants of cold countries are tall, strong and hard-working, whereas the inhabitants of hot countries are short, weak and lazy. Due to different cultural environments, many types of differences are visible between Hindus and Muslims.


3. Caste, species and country :- The third reason for individual differences is caste, race and country. The person of Brahmin caste has the quality of studiousness and the person of Kshatriya caste has the quality of love for war. The white race is more intelligent and efficient than the Negro race. It is because of individual differences that we do not face any difficulty in recognizing people from different countries.

4. Age and intelligence: - The fourth reason for individual differences is age and intelligence. With age the child develops physically, mentally and emotionally. Therefore there is difference in children of different ages. Intelligence being an innate quality draws a clear line of difference by making some talented and others stupid.

5. Education and economic condition :- The fifth reason for individual differences is education and economic condition. Disha makes a person polite, serious and thoughtful and differentiates him from an uneducated person. Poverty is considered the cause of all kinds of sins and vices. 

Due to poverty, people do not consider even heinous acts like theft, robbery and murder as sins. But these people are completely different from those people, because of their good economic condition they consider every misdeed as an unforgivable crime.


6. Gender discrimination :- The sixth reason for individual differences is gender difference. Due to this difference, there is a difference in the physical structure and efficiency of emotional development of boys and girls. 

Apart from this, as Skinner has written – Boys have more ability to do physical work, whereas girls have more ability to remember. Boys are ahead of girls in mathematics and science, while girls are ahead of boys in language and beautiful handwriting. Boys are less affected by suggestion but girls are more interested in adventurous stories, while girls are more interested in love stories and daydreams.


We have documented many reasons for individual differences. These reasons are generally responsible for individual differences. But as far as the number of students receiving education in schools is concerned, there are some other major reasons for its differences. 

Referring to these, Garrison and others have written - “The main reasons for the differences of other children can be expressed by differences in motivation, intelligence, maturity, environmental stimulation.