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Classification of learning disability | Specific learning disabilities


Classification of learning disability


Specific learning Disabilities 

The broad types of learning disabilities are differentiated on several grounds. All these differentiations are suitable for their purposes. Its main differentiation is given in the book (Supporting Students with Learning Disabilities: A Guide for Teachers) published by British Columbia (2011) and the UK Ministry of Education, which is as follows

1. Dyslexia (reading disorder)

2. Dysgraphia (writing disorder)

3. Dyscalculia (mathematical skill disorder)

4. Dysphasia (speech disorder)

5. Dyspraxia (writing and drawing disorders)

6. Dysorthographia (spelling disorder)

7. Auditory Processing Disorder

8. Visual Perception Disorder

9. Sensory integration and processing disorders

10. Organizational Learning Disorder

1. Dyslexia


The word dyslexia is made up of two Greek words "dys" and "lexis" which literally means "difficult speech". Invented by Rudolf Berlin, a German ophthalmologist in the year 887, this term is also called "word blindness". 

Dyslexia is defined as difficulty processing letters of the alphabet representing sounds or numbers representing the linguistic and symbolic codes of language. It affects the written form, oral form and linguistic proficiency of the language. This is the most common type of learning disability.

Following are the symptoms of dyslexia

  • Difficulty learning the alphabet
  • Difficulty learning letter sounds
  • difficulty concentrating
  • omission of vowels while reading
  • Reading words in reverse or by changing the order of letters, such as the name being read as Maan or Shaab as Shaak, suffering from spelling errors.
  • Inability to recognize similar sounds lack of dictionary
  • lack of meaningful use of language poor memory

Identification of dyslexia


The above symptoms are however useful in identifying dyslexia. But no person can be declared dyslexic with complete confidence on the basis of these symptoms. 

In 1973, American physician Elena Bodmer developed a test called the "Bod Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns" to diagnose dyslexia. In India, "Dyslexia Early Screening Test" and "Dyslexia Screening Test" are used for this

Treatment of dyslexia

Complete treatment of dyslexia is impossible but it can be brought to the lowest level through proper teaching-learning method.

2. Dysgraphia

"Dysgraphia is a type of learning disability that affects writing ability. "This is characterized by spelling difficulties, poor handwriting and difficulty recording one's thoughts."

Symptoms of Dysgraphia 

It has the following symptoms:


  • talking to oneself while writing
  • Writing letters with incorrect spelling and irregular shape and size
  • To use excessive labor in copying even when it is legible.
  • Weak grip on writing material or holding writing material too close to the paper illegible handwriting
  • Writing lines up and down and leaving irregular spaces between words.
  • Writing incomplete letters or words.

Remedial program

Since it is a writing disorder, for its treatment it is necessary that the person suffering from this learning disability be given maximum practice in writing

3. Dyscalculia

This is a broad term used for mathematical skills disability. This includes inability to understand the meaning of numbers, inability to use formulas and principles to solve arithmetic problems and all types of mathematical skills.


Symptoms of dyscalculia

It has the following symptoms:

  • Difficulty recognizing names and faces Difficulty understanding symbols of arithmetic operations
  • getting incorrect results of arithmetic operations
  • use fingers to count
  • Difficulty making financial plans or budgets Difficulty in using check book
  • lack of direction or lack of understanding
  • Fear of cash transfers or payments Experiencing difficulty in making a timetable due to improper understanding of time.

Causes of dyscalculia

Its reason is considered to be the dysfunction of the cortex present in the brain. Sometimes dysgraphia also arises due to lack of logical thinking ability or lack of working memory.

Treatment of dyscalculia


Dyscalculia can be reduced by adopting appropriate teaching-learning strategies. Some major strategies are as follows:

  • Presenting examples related to real life situations
  • Providing extra time to memorize mathematical facts
  • Using flash cards and computer games Simplifying math and showing that it is a skill that can be acquired.

4. Dysphasia

The word dysphasia, made up of two Greek words "dis" and "phasia" which literally mean "disability" and "speech" respectively, literally means speech disability. This is a language and speech related disorder due to which children suffering from it experience difficulty while expressing thoughts or lecturing. Brain damage is mainly considered responsible for this disability.

5. Dyspraxia


This mainly indicates drawing related incompetence. Children suffering from this find difficulty in writing and drawing.

Identification of learning disabled children

It is very difficult to identify learning disability in the early stages because there must be a significant difference between actual behavior and expected behavior. The later a learning disability is identified, the more difficult it becomes to diagnose and the greater is the possibility of them becoming victims of wrong tendencies during adolescence. It is identified by the behavior of children at an early stage. 

The teacher is better suited to identify learning disabilities by spending almost the entire day with the students and observing them. On the basis of previously identified disabilities, the teacher is able to get information about the possible learning disability of the student.

Symptoms displayed by a learning disabled child

Learning disability is a type of disability that includes difficulties of various degrees, severity and scope.

These difficulties may appear independently or in groups in a learning disabled child. The following behavioral symptoms are found in learning disabled children, by understanding which such children can be identified quickly.



Generally, students with learning disabilities may be of normal or above normal intellectual level and some students may also have special talents.

Perception and communicative ability

We know that perception is related to meaningful sensation. Often, learning disabled children face problems in perception. As a result, they experience difficulty in differentiating different sounds and scenes and in perceiving the stimuli by placing them in their proper place. Such children can respond similarly to different stimuli. They may also face problems related to concentration and emotion. Such children have problems related to long-term and short-term memory, which are based on perception and recall. They also have difficulty in controlling their own actions.

Compared to other children, they have less skills in adjusting, classifying and organizing.

Due to learning disability, their cognitive abilities are affected. The handwriting of such children is also generally not good.

Metacognitive skills

Meta-intellectual skills ensure successful implementation of the task. Under para-intellectual skills, knowledge of the skills, action plan and necessary resources used to do any work effectively is necessary. It requires self-controlled systems. These include business activities, evaluation of the effectiveness of the working plan, testing the results of efforts and solving problems.


Behavioral and emotional qualities

Learning disabled children are either hyperactive or underactive. The behavior of such children often reflects quick distraction, poor concentration, memory loss, hyperemotionality, hyperactivity and abnormal emotional reactions. Such children have more difficulty in social adjustment, because often under the influence of emotions they violate social values and boundaries. Such children are not able to assess the impact of their own behavior, as a result of which they lack proper understanding and other emotional intelligence. 

As a result, they always receive negative reactions from others and become unwanted in the society. They may lack self esteem due to their inability to interact effectively with others. The reason for the misbehavior of such children is their depression and frustration. Which leads to learning disability. Most of the research data shows that such children have less social acceptance. Nevertheless, there are examples in the society of some learning disabled children who have become popular in the class, school and group.

Course learning ability

Learning disabled children often lag behind other students of their class in areas like reading, comprehension, language fluency and pronunciation etc. Generally such students acquire the opposite meaning of sounds, letters and numbers. These problems later make hearing and reading problems more serious.


Communicative ability

Learning disabled children face difficulty in pronouncing sounds. Such children suffer from repetition of sounds and stammering. They have problem in converting the actual form of language for social use. This problem is reflected in the selection of appropriate words for meaningful communication.

Memory and thinking ability

Often such students may have difficulty remembering words and sounds (which make up words). They have problems in remembering the meaning of words at short term and long-term level. This inability of theirs is either due to their memory impairment or may be the result of problems related to recalling information related to their long-term memory.