Ad Space

Most Popular

Popular Posts

Random Posts

Skip to main content

Concept of Intelligence | Nature of Intelligence | b.ed notes


Concept of Intelligence


Because of intelligence, humans are superior to all other creatures. Whatever may be the ability of a human being, intelligence is an important determining factor for the progress of the individual himself and ultimately the nation.

Therefore, since the beginning of human civilization, man has been trying and being curious to know, investigate and test this ability.

Meaning and definition of Intelligence 


Intelligence is a common word which we use a lot in our day-to-day conversation. We use the word intelligence in everyday language for qualities like fast learning and understanding, good memory and logical thinking etc. In psychology, the word intelligence is used in a special sense apart from its general meaning. 

Since the beginning, psychologists have tried to define the term intelligence. Boring, 1923 was the first to give a formal definition of intelligence and said that intelligence is what intelligence test measures. But, This definition does not reveal anything special about the nature of intelligence.


Because there are many tests to measure intelligence. Which of these tests will measure intelligence? After Boring, many psychologists have tried to define intelligence in different ways. All these definitions are basically divided into three parts.

1. Intelligence as the ability to adjust

In the first category of definition, intelligence is defined as the ability to adjust to the environment. 

Following are some such definitions -

According to Stern,

"Intelligence is the general ability to adjust to new situations and problems of life."

According to Vert,

"Intelligence is the innate ability to adjust to relatively new circumstances."

According to Cruz,

"Intelligence is the ability to adjust appropriately to new and different situations."


According to this definition, intelligence is the general mental ability to adapt or adjust to different situations and new problems that come in life. In other words, it can be said that intelligence is the ability by which a person reorganizes his behavior in such a way that he can work in a more appropriate and effective manner in new circumstances. 

According to such definitions, an intelligent person is one who is capable of changing himself easily, easily and quickly according to the changing circumstances.

2. Intelligence As An Ability To Learn

In the second category of definitions, intelligence has been defined as the ability to learn. Following are some of the definitions that clarify intelligence as the ability to learn.

According to Buckingham,

"Intelligence is the ability to learn."

According to Dearborn,

"Intelligence is the ability to learn or benefit from experiences."

According to this definition, intelligence is the ability to acquire new knowledge quickly and comprehensively. In other words, the potential, breadth and depth of learning experiences acquired by a person is indicative of his intelligence. According to such definitions, an intelligent person is one who assimilates new things very quickly. 


3. Intelligence as an ability to think abstractly

While clarifying the meaning of intelligence,

According to Wechsler,

"Intelligence is the collective ability of a person to act purposefully, think logically, and interact effectively with the environment."

According to Robinson,

"Intelligence refers to a range of cognitive behaviors that reflect a person's ability to intelligently solve problems, adapt to new situations, think abstractly, and benefit from experiences."

Nature of Intelligence 


From all these definitions the following conclusions can be drawn about the nature of intelligence

1. Intelligence is the ability to adjust effectively to the environment.

2. Intelligence is the ability to learn.

3. Intelligence is the ability to think abstractly.

4. Intelligence is the sum total of various abilities.

5. It demonstrates a person's problem solving ability.

6. Intelligence can be measured on the basis of direct behavior.

7. It is through intelligence that one gets the benefit of past experiences in solving any problem.

8. Intelligence is the ability to think rationally.


9. Both genetics and environment are responsible factors for the development of intelligence.

10. It is the ability to concentrate one's energy in doing any work.

11. Intelligence is an indicator of mental maturity.

12. This is the ability to reason through induction and deduction methods.

13. These are essential for higher order thinking processes.

14. It is a perception ability.

15. It is the ability to do complex, difficult, economical work with intangible and social values.

16. Intelligence is verbal and nonverbal ability.


17. Intelligence is a hypothetical concept.

18. Intelligence can be understood as the ability to alertness, perception, thoughts and symbols, ability to criticize oneself, self confidence and strong motivation.

19. Individual differences are found in intelligence.

20. Intelligence can be observed through a system of action.