Ad Space

Most Popular

Popular Posts

Random Posts

Skip to main content

Agencies of Socialization B.Ed Notes | Techniques of Socialization


The agencies of Socialization are as follows:

(1) Family :

As we have already explained above family is the first agency of socialisation. The child learns his values, ideals and beliefs from his parents. The guardians teach the ideals and beliefs of the religion which they follow. They may create some hatred to other religions. In that case the children get wrong notions. When the child grows older he gets more information and he starts discriminating between different viewpoints. It is possible then that he may accept changes in the belief. patterns taught by his parents. But, it cannot be denied that the parents have very deep influence on the socialisation of their children.

Family is the primary means or agency of socialization, since it is in the family that a person is born and is, first, a member of the family. In the individual 's personality, the influence of the family is permanent and inward with the initial, imprint of which is indelible. The socialization process in the family is constantly active, starting from a few moments after the child is born. After birth, the child 's most intimate relationship is with her mother, because mother gives her milk and gives her love and protects her in every way. The father also contributes to the protection. The child next to it is concerned with all the members of the family and to give mental peace to the child, the support, affection, love, etc., between the members of the family and which he also learns these qualities because of his tendency to emulate and these attributes help in the development of his personality.

(2) Friends and Peer Groups:

As the child proceeds from the childhood towards the adolescence and maturity stages the influence of outside agencies of his socialization increases. The teachers, counsellors, etc. play effective role in socialisation of the school going child. The friends and class-fellows also influence him. They many a times tell him what is good and what is bad. He learns much of his behaviour patterns by associating with them. From his team mates he learns the rules of games and the manners and etiquette.

(3) School:

As indicated above the school is an effective medium of Socialization.

The child's intellectual, emotional, physical and social development takes place in the school. Here he learns the code of conduct, the norms of behaviour, the dress code, and patterns of living. The child learns the value of cooperation and competition. He learn the social significance of praise, blame, favouritism, jealousy, love, self-resect and prestige on the climate of the school the development of the social behaviour of the child depends to a very great extent.

(4) Community:

Every person is a member of one or many groups and institutions Through his membership to various groups he participates in his national or regional culture. Some groups are formed formally and some others are purely informal. The membership to these groups influence the social development of the individual Community to which a person belongs has its own cultural heritage. It transmits this heritage to its new members. Hence, the child learns group norms and the desirable behaviour patterns through his membership to the community in which he is born or he is living or has lived.

(5) Caste and Class:

Both these are agents of socialisation in the sense that the child learns the customs and traditions of his caste and class. He also learns the value of his being born in a particular caste or class. The child becomes the member of his caste by virtue of his birth and he cannot change it. But class to which his parents belong may be changed. These facts he learns early in life and moulds his pattern of life in the light of these facts.

(6) Religious Institutions :

The child learns the religious ideals from religious institutions. Every religion propagates its ideals, etc. The religious rituals, religious festivals, the religious books, religion related stories, dramas, biographies, etc. all influence the life of the child. He learns the value of religious sanction for his actions.

(7) Marriage -

marriage is a social institution which combines two different personalities with each other in such a way that they are identical. The difference between husband and wife, natoleration, beliefs and attitudes are very different before the marriage, but after the marriage they adjust and harmonise each other in such a way that there is a uniformity of mood. Thus, through marriage, the individual develops a sense of responsibility, sacrifice and devotion to duty which supports socialization.

Techniques of Socialization

The following are the techniques of Socialization:

(1) Reward and Punishment:

This technique is used by the parents from the very early life of the child. The mother offers breast when the child does not stop crying and when she becomes angry she leaves him alone. Similarly as he grows old his father and teacher teach him good behaviour through rewards and punishments.

(2) Praise and Blame :

Like reward and punishment praise and blame are used to teach the child good social behaviour.

(3) Advise and Counselling :

This technique is used with older children. The parents or elders in the family offer advise to the child to behave in a particular manner. With grown ups professional counsellors are of very great help in solving their social and personal problems.

(4) Imitation of a Model :

The child imitates the behaviour of his parents whom he considers as models. The teacher, the friend, the sibling, some elder in the family or an actor or actress in a film or television show or drama may become the model for the child whose behaviour patterns he may imitate.

(5) Suggestion :

The children are given suggestions for behaving properly. The suggestions may be given directly or indirectly. The direct suggestions are given when the child is asked to do this or that. The indirect suggestions are given when the child by observing the problem solving behaviour of others learns that such problems can be solved in the particular manner.

(6) Obedience:

The child may be given orders for behaving in a particular manner.

The teacher says "stand up" when any elder enters the class. The children obey him and learn to respect the elders.

(7) Social Service :

The child can be socialised by being engaged in social service and social work.