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Stages of Growth And Development B.Ed Notes | Stages of Development

Stages of Growth and Development B.Ed Notes


(A) Infancy (from Birth to 2 years)

1. Characteristics : The period is marked by rapid physical growth.

2. Importance : Highlighting its importance, Ruth Strang of Columbia University remarked, "During the first two years of his life he lays the foundation for his future."

Dr. F. Goodenough, a prominent child psychologist said, "One-half of an individual's mental structure has been attained by the age of three years."

Educational Implications:

1. The Montessori is the ideal approach

2. The setting within the family ought to be of warmheartedness and love. the kid ought to have the sensation that everyone within the family loves him.

3. Freedom ought to incline to the kid in his movements.

(B) Childhood (from 2 years to 6 years)

Characteristics : It is the most important and impressionistic period of child's life The child learns his first lesson of citizenship in the home and the school. She develops the instinct of curiosity. She loves make-believe plays.

Educational Implications : This period of a child's life is of great educational significance. Watson rightly said that "the scope and intensity of learning during this period exceeds that of any other period of development.” The parents and teachers should remember the following points while planning the education of the child at this stage:

(i) Provision of Healthy Environment

(ii) Rational Treatment

(iii) Satisfaction of Curiosity

(iv) Learning by Doing

(v) Dynamic methods of Teaching

The Montessori Method is based on sound psychological principles required for this stage.

It provides opportunities for the child to develop his five senses. This sensory training is only possible at this stage.

(C) Later Childhood (from 6 to 14 years)

Characteristics: According to Watson, "A derivative of anger, annoyance becomes more prominent in later childhood. While boys are considered superior in games requiring physical strength, girls are superior to boys on the use of fine muscles and in acquiring skill like drawing, painting, sewing etc.

Educational Implications : This stage is known as the formative age of the child She develops basic outlook, values and ideas. The folks, academics and social staff have a crucial role to play. The school authorities have a responsibility towards the development of the child. Following points may remembered in this connection:

1. Respect child's individuality:

2. Remember that each child is unique.

3. Organize co-curricular activities

4. Arrange group competitions

5. Organize games regularly

6. Develop creative talent.

(D) Adolescence (from 14 to 18 years)

Chief Characteristics :

(i) There is an outburst of various aspects of development

(ii) It is a period of opposite pattern;

(iii) It is period of preparation for living well in society;

(iv) It is marked by far : reaching changes.

Educational Implications : Following are required :

(i) Compulsory physical exercises and games;

(ii) monthly health check-up;

(iii) provision of good library;

(iv) organisation of clubs;

(v) guidance services;

(vi) rational the teacher;

(vii) meeting fears of inadequacy;

(viii) No discrimination;

(ix) exercises and educational tours;

(x) imparting sex education.

Proper acquaintance with the pattern of human development would enable the teacher to know at what age, what behavioural changes occur and when are these patterns usually replaced by more mature patterns. This is often too much is expected from students and if they do not show such results, they develop a feeling of inadequacy. A knowledge of development pattern enables the teachers to adjust the teaching-learning process according to the needs and interests of the students. They come to know when students need special guidance.

Deviation from normal behaviour becomes a cause of anxiety for the teachers as and when the pattern, of development is normal, one stage leads them effectively into the next. A knowledge of development pattern is essential for psychological, practical and scientific reasons.