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Vocationalisation of Education b.ed notes

Vocationalisation of Education b.ed notes


Eduction is generally classified into two classes; general and vocational.

General education comprimises education by which human traits are developed in people, they are made civilized and cultured, and they are prepared for general life.

Vocational education comprises the education by which individuals are skilled in some productive work, distribution system or in other vocations and are made capable of earning their livelihood.


  • The world history reveals that it was India where the educational institutions came into being first.

  • During the Vedic period (2500 BC to 500 BC), a prosperous educational system was developed here.

  • During this period, the gurukuls provided education in agriculture, herding, identification of diamond and gems and their valuation and sale purchase (commerce), etc., while education of crafts and skills was imparted at home or respective guilds.

  • During the Buddhist period (500 BC to 1200 AD), which succeeded the Vedic period, a great progress was made in the country in the fields of production, crafts and commerce.

  • In this period, there was provision of education of all types of crafts, production work and commerce in Buddhist viharas and monasteries.
  • There is mention of 18 crafts in the Malindpanh, a Buddhist text.

  • A great development took place in the field of Ayurveda in this period, and there was adequate provision of its education in the contemporary universities.

  • Great physical Dhanvantari are Charvak and surgeon Jeevak and Sushrut were the product of this period.

  • From 1200 AD, the foreigner Muslims entered our country. They ruled here from 1200 to 1700 AD.

  • During this period, more development took place in the fields of crafts and other vocations.

  • First, there had been much progress in these fields prior to them;

  • secondly, these people were accompanied with their crafts.

  • In this period, all these crafts and vocations were taught in madarsas.

  • In 1613, the English traders entered our country. They set up the East India Company.

  • The Christian missionaries also entered India at that time. They set up primary schools at first, and provided education in language and mathematics as well as in handicrafts.

  • After its victory in the Battle of Plassy and 1764 Battle of Buxar, the Company became the ruler of the contemporary provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Avadh.

  • Gradually, the area of influence of the company expanded.

  • In 1857, the Indians raised the voice of revolt against the English.

  • With the suppression of this revolt, the British government directly ruled over the occupied parts.

  • The English dominated our country from 1700 to 1900, so this period is called the English period.

  • The English propagated European language, literature and science.
  • The foundation of modern education was laid during this period. The modern colleges, universities and agriculture, engineering and medical colleges were started during this period.

  • During this period, the foundation for vocational education was not only laid but also expanded.


Meaning of Vocationalisation of Education

So far as educational system of production and vocation is concerned, this process has been in existence right since the Vedic period in our country;
however, during the English period emphasis was laid on this type of education.

In the beginning of this period, the Christian missionaries started education in handicrafts at the primary education level.

The new national educational policy was announced in the Wood Despatch.
In this policy emphasis was laid on the provision of vocational education for eradicating unemployment in the country, meeting the requirements of skilled craftsmen for insutry and improving the economic condition of the Indians, in accordance to its announcement was made to establish separate vocational educational institutes.

After this, the Indan Education Commission (Hunter Commission, 1882) recommended to commerce two types of curricula at the secondary education level;
(a) literary and
(b) vocational.

The Wood and Abbot Report, 1937 too recommended in the same lines.

The Sergeant Plan, 1944 named these as literary and technical curricula respectively.

Our country became free from the English rule on 15 August, 1947. With this, we started change and development in all spheres, including the educational field.

In independent India, it was the Secondary Education Commission, 1952-53 that recommended to run diversified courses at the secondary education level, and recommended to change thei general secondary schools into multipurpose schools.

The government took concrete steps in this direction, but did not succeed.

The National Education Commission, 1964-66  recommended vocationalisation of secondary education in place of its diversification.

For this, it suggested to start the work experience at secondary education level (classes 9 and 10) and general curriculum for talented students at + 2 level as well as vocational courses or general students.
It explained that students will be given opportunities to work ini Workshops, vocational institutions, agricultural farms and industrial institutions during work experience at the secondary education level.

The National Education Policy, 1968 accorded this in principle, and the National Education Policy, 1986 also approved it.

It was then thought that work experience will cultivate dignity of labour and vocational aptitude in the students and they will be able to begin self-employment after + vocational education, or will get jobs in vocational institutions.

The 1986 Plan of Acton aimed at bringing 25% students at + 2 level into the vocational stream by the year 199 For achieving this objective, the government started the scheme for vocationalisation of secondary education at + 2 level in 1988 which the State government were given financial aid for commencing vocational courses at + 2 level, Besides, a Joint Council of Vocational Education (JCVE) was constituted for determining the policy concerning vocational education.

This council allowed 44,000 schools to run 12,543 vocational courses in the country by 1992.
However, all this effort could bring in only 2.56% of students in this stream, and this percentage could be increased to a mere 11% by the year 2001.

The problem remains if, like diversified courses at secondary education level, the vocational courses at + 2 level might fail.

Thus, by vocationalisation of education at present is meant to commence work experience or work education at secondary education level (classes 9 and 10) and to make it successful, and to commence vocational curriculum at + 2 level and to make it successful.

Barriers in Vocationalisation of Education

In India, there are two aspects of vocationalisation of education :

first, to commence work experience or work education at secondary education level (classes 9, 10) and make it successful and

Second, to commence vocational curriculum at + 2 level and make it successful.

However, we have not been able to do this well enough, the chief causes being as follows:

(1) The students and their guardians are inclined towards mental work-oriented higher education as against physical work-oriented vocational education.

(2) There are neither human resources nor material resources available for providing education in work experience or work education at secondary education level (classes 9, 10).

(3) No benefit is expected from this either.

(4) The vocational courses being run in general schools at + 2 level, suffer from unnecessary burden of language and foundation courses.

(5) A shortcoming in these courses is that more emphasis is laid on theoretical aspect rather than practical aspect.

More energy of students is spent on theoretical knowledge, they fail to get adequate proficiency in the vocation;
therefore, their market value is below par, and they fail to get suitable employment.

(6) Most of the general schools lack necessary laboratories, workshops and other aids for running the vocational programmes at + 2 level; how can then suitable arrangement for vocational education be made in them.

(7) There is shortage of able, skilled and trained teachers to run these courses, how can these courses be run with such teachers.

(8) Any vocation can actually be taught at the vocational centres, and the fact remains that students have no opportunities available to them to work in these centres.

(9) The most vital reason is lack of honesty and devotion.
The financial aid given for running these courses is mostly misused in corruption.

Teachers do not carry out their responsibilities devotedly, and students too are little worried for their future and enjoy themselves.

Measures to Make Process of Vocationalisation of Education Successful


In India, the union government is giving financial aid to State governments for vocationalisation of education, yet the State governments have not been successful in this task.

In our opinion, the following should be paid attention to:

(1) To cultivate aptitude for work-oriented vocational education in students and their guardians, the basic measure is to make the physical work-oriented social work compulsory for all students at secondary level (classes 9, 10).

Secondly, loan should be given for seli-employment to the individuals who have received vocational education.

Thirdly, only those should be appointed at vocational centres who have passed vocational education at the minimum + 2 level.

These measures will attract students and their guardians towards this type of education.

2) When there are available neither human resources nor material resources, the idea of work experience of work education should be buried.

In our country, about 80% children at this level share work in domestic and vocational tasks.

(3) There should be separate academic colleges and vocational colleges at + 2, only then these courses can be run effectively.

(4) The language and core curriculum should be removed from vocational courses being run at + 2.

The secondary education pass students can be expected to complete these courses.

(5) Equal importance should be given to theoretical and practical work in these courses.

After having removed language and core curriculum, the theoretical aspect will be reduced by about 35%, which can be utilised for practical work.

(6) If the government really wishes to run these vocational courses at + 2 level, it Should give necessary financial aid for laboratories, workshops and other aids.

It is also necessary to ensure that this aid is used properly.

(7) For supply of able, skilled and trained teachers, there should be separate vocational teacher training colleges.

These training colleges should be fully equipped with necessary paraphernalia.

(8) There should be mutual cooperation between vocational educational institutions and vocational centres.

This can be possible only when students of vocational education work at vocational centres honestly and devotedly without charging any money.

(9) This is also necessary that all people concerned with this field work honestly and diligently.

This will help obtain optimal results with limited resources.