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Radhakrishnan Commission b.ed notes| University Education Commission b.ed notes

Radhakrishnan Commission b.ed notes


It was the first commission in the field of education in India which sought ideas from persons related to education through a questionnaire and gave them a due place in its report. The utility of its suggestions is thus obvious. The Government implemented some of its suggestions in a time bound manner and got good results too. But in the context of the present scenario some of its suggestions are absurd. They may be regarded as the demerits of this commission.

Merits and Demerits of University Education Commission

Merits of Radhakrishnan Commission


The following recommendations of the commission were of much importance and significance:

1. University Education in the Concurrent List :

The commission suggested to place the university education in the Concurrent List and to make its organisation a joint responsibility of the Central as well as the Provincial Governments.

Higher education in any country is regarded as the education of national importance, therefore the Central Government should have a significant role in its organisation.

The Government accepted this proposal of Radhakrishnan Commission as late as in 1976. Had this proposal been accepted by the Government earlier, the condition of higher education would have been much better.

2. Formation of the University Grants Commission :

To maintain the standard of university education and to provide necessary grants to the universities and colleges, the commission suggested to form the University Grants Commission.

In 1953 the Government converted the University Grant Committee into University Grants Commission and through an amendment, in 1956, it was given an autonomous status. This organisation has succeeded greatly in the upliftment of higher education


3. Control over the Universities and Affiliated Colleges:

This commission fixed the minimum working days of the universities and their affiliated colleges to be 180 days excluding the examination days and also fixed the minimum age (18 years) and qualification (intermediate passed) for admission in the universities or colleges.

It also suggested to give admission to the able students only. Further, it fixed the maximum strength of students in a university to be 3000 and in a college to be 1500. This suggestions is of great significance because, it is the increasing number of students which is the root cause of all the problems in higher education.

4. Three Years Degree Course and Compulsory General Education :

The suggestion to make 3 years degree curriculum was first given by the Indian University Commission, but to make the general education compulsory at this level, in any stream arts, science and vocational subjects, was first given by this Commission.

Its implementation would have benefitted in two ways-first the preparation of scholars with varied knowledge in the society and second, correlation between different subiects would have been established.


But instead, most of the universities implemented it in their own ways, some made the education of language compulsory while others made something else compulsory.

5. Reform in the Teaching Standard :

To improve the condition of the universities and their affiliated colleges this commission suggested the following- 

  • appointment of able teachers,
  • admission of able students,
  • increase in the working days of the universities and colleges,
  • implementation of tutorial system and organisation of seminars.

It is obvious that all these could definitely improve the teaching standards.

6. Reform in the Pay Scales and Service Conditions of Teachers :

The commission suggested to increase the pay-scales and to improve the service conditions of the teachers to attract the able persons to this profession.


7. Preference to Ability and Research Work in Promotion :

Till then, seniority was the basis for the promotion of teachers in the universities. This commission suggested to consider ability and research work besides seniority as the basis for promotion.

But, the Government failed to do so otherwise the teachers in higher education would have developed their competence and research ability.

8. Welfare Programmes for Students:

This commission gave varied suggestions to organize various student welfare programmes like- 

  • formation of Student Welfare Board;
  • appointment of the Director of Physical Education for the proper organisation of physical education, games and sports;
  • appointment of the Dean of Student Welfare to solve students' problems;
  • arrangement of subsidized mid-day meals and provision of hostels for students.

All these helped secure students' welfare.


9. Proper Direction to Different Vocational and Technical Education :

This commission gave appropriate suggestions to reform different types of vocational and technical education like - agriculture, commerce, engineering, medical, law teachers' training, etc.

However, the most significant suggestion of this commission was to encourage research work in all the fields.

10. Creative Suggestions for Reform University Examinations :

This commission had suggested to reform the university essay type examinations as early as 1949, and to introduce objective type examinations. Had we tried honestly in this direction, the university examinations could have long been made useful, valid and reliable.

University Education Commission b.ed notes 

Demerits of the Commission


Some of the suggestions of this Commission were quite trivial:

1. Widespread Aims of Higher Education :

This commission emphasized on the physical, mental, social, cultural, moral, political, economic and spiritual development of students through higher education.

In reality, however these are the aims of general compulsory and free education in any society. The efforts to achieve them should begin right from the beginning.

The aims of higher education should be limited and specific. In other words, the main aim of higher education should be to produce specialized manpower to perform specialized tasks.

2. Compulsory Religious Education :

As far as the religoius and moral education is concerned it should be included in the education of any country, but cautiously. There is no rationale in organizing religious education at the graduation level.

The 3 years curriculum prepared by the Commission for this level was still more ludicrous. It seems as if the commission wanted to impart only religious education at the graduation level.


3. No Clearcut Suggestion for the Medium of Education :

On the one hand, the commission accepted that the medium of higher education in India should be the regional languages and on the other hand it suggested the use of English till the regional languages develop to that extent.

Its third suggestion is still more trivial that is there should be the facility of education, in any field, through the medium of national language Hindi. The use of Devnagri script for every federal language and to bring about necessary reforms in Devnagri script seems still more confusing.

4. Discriminatory Pay Scales for Teachers :

The suggestion of five categories of teachers (Research fellow, Instructor, Lecturer, Reader and Professor), in the universities and only one category of teachers (iturer) in the al. colleges, itself wall illogical.

Secondly, fixation of low pay scale for college lecturers in comparison to the university lecturers was absurd and completely against the theory-same pay for same work.


5. Impracticable Suggestion of Rural Universities :

It is an indisputable fact that India is an agrarian country and the development of the villages is a pre-requisite for the development of the country. But to establish Rural universities and small affiliated colleges (with a strength of 300 students only) seems illogical.

Secondly, it was impossible for the Government to implement this plan. It was an impractical suggestion as a result no progress could be seen in this direction.

6. Narrow Attitude towards Women Education :

The commission emphasized on making women good mothers and good housewives through education. It was completely a myopic attitude of the commissicn towards women education, particularly in the present age of democracy when there should not be any discrimination in the nature of education of men and women

Impact of the Commission


The Central Advisory Board of Education considered the suggestions of this Commission in April, 1950 and acecpted most of its recommendations. But one of its fundamental recommendation i.e. to enlist education in the Concurrent List was no accepted. It was only in 1976 through 42nd Constitutional Amendment that education was placed in the Concurrent List. But some of its recommendations were immediately acted upon and they are:

(1) In 1953, the University Grants Committee was converted into University Grants Commission and in 1956 through an amendment it was accorded an independent status. Since then UGC is playing a crucial role in organizing higher education, maintaining its standard, coordinating higher education and encouraging research work.

(2) In 1954, the Government established a Rural Higher Education Committee at the centre and gave it the responsibility to organize rural education.

(3) On the recommendation of this Commission the establishment of the universities, according to the regional needs, gained momentum throughout the country.


(4) It was on the recommendation of this Commission that independent colleges were established for agriculture, commerce, engineering, medical, law and teacher training.

(5) In some universities 3 years degree course was introduced; at present, however every university has implemented it.

(6) Higher education in some subjects began to be imparted in regional languages Simultaneously, the work on the dictionary of terminologies also gained momentum.

(7) National Cadet Core (NCC) was promoted in the universities and colleges.


(8) The pay scales of university and college teachers were raised and their service conditions were improved.

9) Many new plans and programmes for the students welfare began, for instance the establishment of the Student Welfare Advisory Board in the universities appointment of Dean, Student Welfare and of Director, Physical Education organization of subsidized mid-day meal, establishment of restaurants and construction of hostels.

Delors Commission Report

Hartog Committee 1929