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Government resolution on Education Policy 1913| Resolutions on Education Policy 1913


Three fundamental principles were declared in this education proposal:

(1) To pay more attention to raise the standard of educational institutions rather than the increase in their number.

(2) To incorporate vocational subjects in the curriculum at the primary and secondary levels

3) To organize higher education and research work.

The suggestions proposed on the bases of these principle regarding education were as follows:

Suggestions Regarding Primary Education


In the context of primary education, the Government accepted that it deserves maximum attention and requires maximum expenditure.

It was further Stated in the proposal that due to some administrative and financial difficulties the Government is unable to organize free and compulsory primary education, but it desired the widest possible expansion of primary education, though encouragement, on voluntary basis.

The Government also hinted that at present it is not possible to make primary education completely free, but the local bodies will organise free primary education for the children of the poorer and more backward sections of the population.

Following suggestions were made in the proposal for primary education:

(1) The number of the lower primary schools should be increased and besides the education of the three R's, the children should be taught drawing, map reading nature study and physical exercise, in these schools.

(2) A few lower primary schools should be developed into upper primary schools.

New upper primary schools should be established at appropriate places.

(3) Individual efforts should be encouraged in those areas where local bodies are unable to open primary schools.

(4) Primary schools should be established in hygienic places and low cost buildings should be constructed for them


(5) Indigenous schools-maktabs and pathsalas, should be given grants liberally.

(6) Arrangement should be made for the inspection of every type of primary schools

(7) The primary teacher should be at least middle pass and possess one year teacher training.

8) Trained teachers should be paid a salary of Rs. 12/- per month.

9) The number of students in any class should be between 30 to 40 and in no case should be more than 50

Suggestions Regarding Secondary Education


The Government accepted that it was unable to fulfil its responsibility of secondary education properly.

Following suggestions were made in the proposal regarding secondary education:

(1) The State should not consider itself free from the responsibility of secondary education.

2) The Government should establish secondary schools in such areas where voluntary efforts are not forthcoming.

3) Government Secondary Schools should act as the model for the non government secondary schools.

4) Grant-in-aid should be given liberally to the non government secondary schools.

(5) Inspection of every type of secondary schools should be conducted regularly.

(6) The curriculum of high school should be a complete unit in itself. Education of handicrafts and science should be included in it.


(7) Education of physical science should also be imparted to the students.

(8) Only the graduates and trained teachers should be appointed in secondary schools.

(9) The teacher's salary of the government schools should be fixed. The teachers teaching English should be given at least Rs. 40/- per month.

(10) Hostels should be arranged in the government secondary schools.

Suggestions Regarding Higher Education

The Government accepted that the organisation of higher education, at that time, was not satisfactory.

Following decisions were taken in the proposal to reform the higher education:

(1) The jurisdiction of the universities should be reduced. For this at least one university should be established in each province.

(2) Teaching work should be organised in the universities. First of all a teaching university should be established in Dacca and thereafter teaching universities should be established at Aligarh, Banaras and Lucknow.


(3) The work load of the universities should be reduced and the responsibility to grant recognition to high schools should be transferred to the Provincial Governments and Indian States.

(4) The curriculum of the universities should be updated and made extensive as per requirement.

(5) Appropriate environment should be created in the universities and colleges for the character formation of youths.

6) Residence for the teachers and hostels for the students should be arranged in the universities.

Suggestions Regarding Women Education


The Government accepted that the women education during that period was almost non existent.

Following suggestions were made in the proposal for the expansion of women education:

(1) Separate schools should be established for girls.

(2) The conditions for the grant-in-aid for girls schools should be made more liberal.

3) Curriculum for girls should be made according to their needs.

4) The number of female teachers and female inspectors should be increased.



There was nothing new in the Education Policy, 1913. The only difference was that some of the suggestions were presented in a new form and in a more erudite language.

Those suggestions in themselves may be regarded as its merits

(1) To determine the minimum educational qualification and the salary of the primary school teachers.

(2) To determine the number of students in the classes of primary schools.

(3) To determine the minimum educational qualification and the salary of the secondary school teachers.

(4) To establish some universities only for teaching work to uplift the standard of higher education.

(5) To reduce the jurisdiction and work load of the universities.

At the same time however some of its suggestions were quite absurd,

(1) Retaining English as the medium of secondary education

2) To give more salary to the teachers of English in comparison to the teachers of other subjects.

Impact of the Resolution on Education Policy 1913


Coming to the impact of the education policy, 1913, this policy was promulgated in 1913 and the First World War began in 1914.

Being a British Colony, India also joined this war. As a result the priorities of the Government changed. All the development activities were subordinated to war. No progress of any denomination took place in the field of primary education.

According to Dr. Sridhar Mukhopadhyay only 25% of the children in the age group 6 to 11 years were receiving primary education in 1917.

Retaining English as the medium of instruction in secondary schools impeded the progress in this field also. Of course, some progress did occur in the expansion and upliftment of higher education.

In 1916 Mysore University and in 1917, Patna University and Banaras Hindu University were established. As a result, while 4358 students appeared at B.A. examination in 1912, this number increased to 8089 in 1917. This progress if evaluated fron the point of view of the pre condition, may be regarded as satisfactory. But the overall impact of the education policy, 1913 remained insignificant.

Meaning of Vedic Education Period