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Learners with Special Educational Needs ( SEN ) b.ed notes

Learners with Special Educational Needs (SEN)

SEN stands for Special Educational Needs

It denotes the learners with special need and those are physically, mentally, behaviourally emotionally deviates from normal growth and need special education and environment.

SEN definition :

"A SEN learner is he who deviates physically, intellectually and socially so marked by the normal growth and development that he cannot be benefitted from regular classroom programme and needs special treatment in school"

Characteristics of learners with special Education needs:

  • Having deviated normal growth in terms of physical, mental, social and emotional growth.
  • They need special education and cannot be benefitted from regular classroom.
  • SEN learners requires modifications in normal school to increase their potential 

In 1990 (Jornithan, Thailand), World Conference of Education For All, participated oy 150 countries and more than 150 NGOs, discussed to provide equal rights to access education for all category of disabled child.

In 1994, Salamanca statement (Spain), 92 countries and 25 International Organisations adopted this statement to provide special education in regular schools by accommodating special need children and to create inclusive education to fight against discriminatory attitudes.

We have free education as a fundamental right for children from 6 to 14 years of age and for differently-abled children this age is 6 to 18 years as per RTE, 2009

SEN learners can be divided into following categories

1. Visually impaired Children

2. Hearing Impaired Children

3. Speech Impaired Children

4. Orthopaedic Impaired Children

5. Intellectually Impaired Children

6. Learning Impaired Children

7. Multiple Disabled Children 

Diverse Needs of SEN Learners

  1. Physical and Psychological Needs
  2. Educational Needs
  3. Social Needs
  4. Emotional Needs
  5. Vocational Needs 

Physical and Psychological Needs

These SEN learners have impairment in some part of their body and the problem may be of high degree or low. These type of SEN learners need supportive and assistive devices.

Some are discussed following:

  • The degree of impairment should be detected, diagnosed and classified. Early detection is most important to prevent from secondary disabilities.
  • Physically impaired needs wheelchair, prosthetics, artificial limbs, etc. to assist them and support them in most possible way to make their learning easy
  • The infrastructure should be friendly i.e. should have supportive railings, ramps, wide doors, etc.
  • Time to time counselling and guidance with professionals 

Educational Needs

Academics is most important for all and for SEN learners it should have following aids:

  • For visually impaired children there should be magnifying glasses, books with bigger font, tape recorders, Braille signals everywhere.
  • For hearing impaired children need pictures, videos to make them conceptualize, flashcards, maps, etc.
  • They need proper counselling and guidance.
  • Remedial teaching.
  • One-to-one instructions.
  • Increase the participation of SEN leaners to boost their confidence and motivate them.
  • Adapt innovative teaching and keep doing R&D in this field to improve education.
  • Providing financial aids and scholarships.
  • Curriculum design to support the SEN learners in all possible way.

Social Needs

  • We have to teach SEN learners in all possible way to make them social ready for future and they should be treated equally in society.

  • We have to raise awareness among people to respect and increase their rights.

  • Society should motivate and build an equal opportunity place for SEN learners.

  • Make their involvement compulsory in every decisions.

Emotional Needs

  • There is huge demand of emotional support and that should be provided from their families, teachers, society.

  • In normal life emotional togetherness play important role in achieving anything life.

  • It gives psychological balance to life and if someone is psychological strong they can achieve well in life.

  • It will give them positivity, motivation, esteem and social acceptance.

Vocational Needs

  • Only education is not going to play that much important role, the main purpose to educate them is to make them ready for job and self dependence in life.
  • The national education programme suggest implementation of vocationalisation of education.

  • they should be given reservation in employment.

  • To find the job opportunities in many field for SEN learners and for that there is reservation up to 4% in state as well as in central jobs.