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What is Learning Disability ? Types of Learning Disability


What is Learning Disability ?

The term learning disability or learning disability is made up of two different words - 'learning and disability'.

Learning means learning and disability means lack of ability or disqualification or lack of ability. It can be said simply that there is a lack of learning or lack of ability, it is called a learning disability.

To understand the learning or learning problem of children, we need to know or assess the factors affecting the learning process of the child.

To make learning effective, strong motivation and proper study are required. In formal terms, a learning disability can be defined as a deficiency or inability to teach or perform various activities included in the school curriculum.

Meaning of Learning Disability 

Learning disabled children are such children who have a great lack of learning or they do not have enough ability to learn quickly, they do not have that much ability. Children with learning disabilities are such children who have incomplete and unqualified children in listening, speaking, understanding, and reading and writing.

These disabilities are not due to primary group defects such as visual impairment, hearing impairment and mental retardation, but these defects are due to the psychological process in the use and understanding of language.

In this way, children with learning disabilities have to face similar shortcomings and facilities in the field of learning. As a physically handicapped person is in the operation of physical and mental activities.

Definition of Learning Disability 

According to the US National Advisory Committee on Handicapped, 1968,

“Children with learning disabilities are those children who are unable to psychologically function in one or more of the normal systems of speech, writing, or speaking language. The main types of these deficits are the basis is found to be weakness in listening, speaking, understanding, thinking, reading, writing, counting and spelling of words. In this type of inability, the condition of development of physical handicap like dyslexia, aphasia is found also means whatever is included in it.

It does not include learning problems which are mainly due to lack of vision, learning disabilities, mental retardation, emotional withdrawal, or lack of proper environment."

According to Cowell and Furness:-

People with learning disabilities do not learn in the same way or with the same efficiency as people without learning disabilities. Even if they have normal intelligence, their academic performance lags far behind their other classmates. Some face great difficulty in learning math and have a difficult time mastering writing and reading.

Types of Learning Disability 

In intellectual activity, the children of this class are similar to other children. There is no mental backwardness in them. Also, they do not have any kind of visual defect or hearing defect, but they have problems in reading, writing, correct spelling and solving mathematical problems, etc.

All these problems are the result of psychological reasons. There are more difficulties in learning, speaking, understanding and solving mathematical problems etc.

All these difficulties are due to any deficiency or behavioral deficiency in them. One's difficulties are not at all due to mental deficiency only.
This learning disability can be of two types :

1. General learning disability
2. complex learning disability 

1. General Learning Disability Child :-

Learning disability is related to those deficiencies of children which can be rectified through training and tourism to bring them into the category of normal children.

In the early period, these children have to face many problems in learning basic learning skills.

If detected early, the child can be helped. This work can be accomplished by giving him proper training and through practice. Because their problem is of common type.
Therefore, they can be integrated in higher classes of normal schools as well.
For this, general changes have to be made in the curriculum.

2. Child with Complex Learning Disability:-

Children who have difficulty acquiring basic academic skills are counted in this category. Like writing, reading and reading etc. The problem can be due to any disorder of their brain. These children face a lot of problems in integrating them into the school.

Children with learning disabilities have different behavioral characteristics. But there is a huge difference between the achievements and intellectual capacity of all of them. 

These problems can be described in some ways like reading dyslexia, writing problem dysgraphia, communication problem, number problem dyscalculia.

a) Reading (Dyslexia) : 

Under this problem, the learning disabled child has to face difficulties in reading. They are unable to pronounce any word properly due to lack of understanding which makes it difficult for them to read.

b) Writing related problem (Dysgraphia) :-

Under this problem, the child has difficulty in writing. In this, the child does not recognize the letter like he writes 'W' for 'M' and 'd' for 'b'.

c) Communication related problem :-

Under this, the child's ability to speak is less. He is not able to speak competently of another person. He is not able to put his words in front of others properly and such children like to live in solitude, they do not like to meet each other.

d) Numerical problem (Dyscalculia) : -

Under this problem, the child is unable to solve the questions related to numbers. He has problems with addition, subtraction, counting numbers, etc., and is unable to take interest in mathematics. They have difficulty in recognizing numbers.

Features of Learning Disability / Characteristics of Learning Disability 

The problems of children with learning disabilities are very wide and are of various types. They experience difficulties in writing, reading, speaking and understanding. His idols problems are meditation and concentration. They cannot concentrate on anything.

Some of the problematic characteristics faced by children with learning disabilities are as follows -

1. lack of attention

2. memory problem

3. reading problem

4. Language - a) written 
                         b) oral 
#Cognitive Features:- Learning impaired children are mentally weak. They have less power to receive and understand. I can't express my point completely. Due to being mentally weak, they are unable to connect words and leave letters in between or connect them with other letters.

#Educational Features :- For such children, education should be given by sitting in specially made educational classes and specially trained teachers should be arranged for the children to sit in small groups so that they can explain to the normal child.
#Physical Features :- Physically, hands and feet of learning disabled children are not able to work smoothly like us. Because of which they face difficulties in getting education.

# Behavioral Features :- These children are practically far ahead. Such children get angry and nervous quickly and it is difficult to control them. These soul believers are few. They are more dependent on the parents.
#Communication Features:- Communication problems in this type of children are obstructed. He has difficulty in speaking and reading and is unable to convey his words to others through gestures other than mouth.


Role of teacher in Removing Learning Disability

1. It is necessary to follow the instructions given to children suffering from special or learning disabilities.

2. Use language and make sign words colourful.
3. Whatever syllabus we tell to the children, it is especially important for us to pay attention that while writing, underlining the main words, we have to explain them in very simple words and meanings.

4. Different colored chalks should be used for each term or instruction.

5. Raise the sound level while giving instructions to the children.

6. Use pictures and teaching methods more for easy learning of children.
7. Make word play an important part of children so that children with specific and learning disabilities acquire the knowledge of words in some way.

8. Try to simplify the meanings through oral method ie poems in the teaching subject of children.

9. Encourage the children to use different types of illustrations and colored paper to promote their picture knowledge and discuss the various aspects related to that thing and explain their meaning to them.
10. Different questions should be written on the blackboard with different colored chalks to help the students to find their place.

11. Children with learning disabilities should be encouraged to emulate normal children because such children can follow such activities or instructions very well.

12. Summarize what has been said in the whole lesson at the end of the lesson and ask questions.

Therefore, we must keep in mind that the parents of a child suffering from learning disabilities should have faith in the child and keep encouraging and provide a favorable environment for them.