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Meaning and Objectives of Naturalism and Education | Teaching Methods of Naturalism


Meaning, Objectives, Naturalism and Teaching Methods of Naturalism

Naturalism and Education:


Naturalistic thinkers made revolutionary changes in the field of education. He was of the opinion that education is not a process to be conducted by the hands of the teacher, rather its organization should be adapted to the person or the child. The main ideas presented by Naturalism regarding the form of education are as follows


1. Education according to nature.

2. Center point of child education.

3. Returned to nature.

4. Emphasis on the well-being of the child.

5. Emphasis on the freedom of the child

6. Basic instincts are the basis of education.

7. Senses the path to knowledge

8. Opposition to bookish knowledge.

Objectives Naturalism and Education 


Famous educationist Spencer has told 5 major actions to give totality to human life.

1. Self Defense 

2. Fulfillment of basic needs of life

3. Offspring rearing

4. Maintenance of social and political relations

5. Utilization of leave


Famous educationist Rousseau said that the purpose of education is to enable human beings to lead a life in harmony with nature. Through education we do not create anything new in human beings. Rather try to maintain the originality of human

According to Naturalism, we can tell the following objectives of education 


1. To prepare the child to lead a natural life through education.

2. To develop the natural powers of the child.

3. To make the child capable of life's struggle.

4. Independent development of the child's personality.

5. Purification and channelization of basic tendencies.

6. Child's self-preservation and attainment of self-satisfaction.


Naturalism and Teaching Methods:

Naturalism criticizes traditional teaching and gives the slogan "return to nature".

They believe that the child should learn on the basis of his own experience. 

While teaching, the teacher moves from the simple to the difficult, from the known to the unknown, from the uncertain to the definite. 

The sources of teaching should be used from the concrete to the abstract.

On this basis, naturalists emphasized on the adoption of project method, education method through play.

Naturalism and Teacher:


According to Rousseau, the teacher's place is "behind the curtain". The task of the teacher is to create an environment for the proper development of the child and leave the child free in that environment.

Some thinkers consider the teacher as an observer whose job is to observe the natural development of the child and to provide proper facilities for its development.

Naturalism also believes that the responsibility of the teacher is only to understand the nature of the child.

Naturalism and School:


In relation to the school, naturalists support co-education and oppose the conducted examinations, so that the natural development of the children takes place.

Contribution of Naturalism in Education:


1. Child centered education system

2. Importance of sports

3. Emphasis on learning by experience by replacing bookish knowledge

4. Motivation to study child psychology

5. Spread of mass education and support of women's education 

Main features of Naturalism:


1. Nature is the reality:

Naturalism believes in this. That there is no difference between reality and nature, that is, what is real is nature or what is nature is real. Naturalism considers nature as the ultimate entity and lays more emphasis on human nature.

2. There is no difference between mind and body:


Naturalistic school of thought does not make any distinction between mind and body. It holds that man is matter, whether he has a mind or a body, both are the result of this matter.

3. Emphasis on scientific knowledge:

Naturalism also believes that scientific knowledge is the proper knowledge and our effort should be to relate this scientific knowledge to life.


4. Emphasis on achievement by scientific method:

Under naturalism, the acquisition of knowledge has been discussed by the method of induction , along with it also discusses that the best way to acquire knowledge is the method of observation.

5. Nature is the real power:

Naturalism also believes that the supreme power in this world lies in the hands of nature. And the laws of nature are immutable.


6. Human is a part of nature:

Naturalists do not believe in the existence of society. For this reason man is not considered a part of the society. He thinks that man is an integral part of nature.

7. Value lies in nature itself:

Values are determined by the society according to the idealists, while naturalists believe that values exist in nature and if man wants to achieve values, he has to establish a close relationship with nature.