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Types of Pollution b.ed notes | Health and Physical Education b.ed notes


Types of Pollution 


On the basis of atmospheric condition, pollution is studied in the following ways:

1. Air pollution

2. Water pollution

3. Land pollution

4. Noise pollution

5. Radioactive pollution

Air Pollution 


Clean air is essential for the life of all living beings. Air is life. Different gases found in the air are in a certain amount and proportion. Living beings take oxygen gas from the atmosphere for respiration. 

When the specific composition of the atmosphere is affected by harmful elements and its side effects fall on the environment, then this condition is called air pollution.

Sources of air pollution


Air pollution is mainly the result of human activities. Different types of harmful gases released in the atmosphere like carbon dioxide, Water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia etc. and smoke, carbon, dust and mineral particles are the major air pollutants. 

Most of the air pollution is caused by the smoke of factories and automatic vehicles. 

Due to the poor quality of the fuel used in homes, the smoke coming out of it also causes air pollution. 

Apart from this, the gases emanating from volcanic eruptions, nuclear explosions, etc. also cause air pollution. explosion etc.

Effect of air pollution


Air pollution has a very harmful effect on living beings, respiratory diseases, cancer, lung diseases, asthma, asthma, heart disease, high blood pressure, skin diseases etc. are caused by air pollution in humans.

Human efficiency is affected by living in polluted air. 

Due to the effect of polluted air, the leaves of trees and plants dry up and many plants have become extinct due to the effect of harmful gases.

Water Pollution 


Water is essential for all living beings. Water is a nutrient, living beings obtain many minerals in dissolved form from water. 

Many minerals, organic substances and gases are dissolved in water. 

The condition in which some external harmful substances are present in water, which destroy its utility and are harmful to health, is called water pollution.

Sources of water pollution


The main source of water pollution is the discharge of industrial and domestic waste directly into the water source. 

Chemical fertilizers and pesticides used for agricultural work also reach the rivers along with rain water, which causes water pollution. 

The waste water from nuclear plants reaches the rivers and affects the water with harmful substances for a long time.

Effect of water pollution


Water pollution has a serious effect on human life and other living beings. Various types of infectious diseases spread due to polluted water like cholera, typhoid, jaundice etc. spread through the use of contaminated water.

Organisms living in water are most affected by water pollution. 

There is a lack of oxygen gas in polluted water due to which aquatic animals and plants are not able to respire.

Land pollution 


Soil contains different types of organic matter, mineral salts, air and water in a certain quantity. 

Any such unwanted change in the physical, chemical and biological properties of the land, which has a harmful effect on the living beings and destroys the natural quality of the land, is called land pollution.

Sources of land pollution


Due to the use of chemical fertilizers to increase the fertility of the land, the biological properties of the land change. 

Due to the use of different types of pesticides, weed killers, etc., the situation of land pollution arises. 

Land pollution also occurs due to excessive mining, floods, industrial and domestic waste.

Effects of land pollution


Due to the use of chemical fertilizers, the fertility of the land is destroyed and these chemical substances mix with rain water and spread far and wide, affecting all three, water, air and soil.

Under the influence of various chemical substances, pesticides and industrial and domestic waste, serious diseases occur in living beings. 

Some chemical substances like D.D.T. become a part of the food chain and cause many diseases by reaching the body of living beings.

Noise pollution 


When the sound exceeds the level of human hearing capacity, then it is called noise. If the intensity and duration of noise is in the environment in a stable form for a long time, then this condition is called noise pollution.

Sources of noise pollution

The noise in our environment is increasing uncontrollably under the influence of urbanization and industrialization.


The situation of noise pollution has arisen due to the use of automatic vehicles, jet planes and sound amplifiers. 

Due to the use of loud sound equipment in various events, the continuous noise situation is the main source of noise pollution.

Effect of noise pollution

Air pollution affects humans and other living beings. Hearing loss due to exposure to loud noise. 

Human efficiency is affected due to excessive noise and many other physical and mental diseases occur due to lack of sleep.

Radioactive pollution


When the by-products produced due to nuclear reactions affect the environment harmfully, it is called nuclear or radioactive pollution.

Particles (electrons, protons and neutrons), rays (alpha, beta and gamma) and various gases produced by nuclear reactions pollute the environment a lot. Nuclear or radioactive pollution is the most harmful pollution

Sources of Radioactive pollution


Radioactive pollution is mainly caused by the manufacturing and testing of nuclear weapons. Radioactive pollution is also spread by the waste of nuclear power houses.

Effects of radioactive pollution

Radioactive pollution has long-term effects on living organisms. 

Due to its effect, there are changes in genetic properties which are called mutations, which are completely harmful to the living beings. 

Radioactive pollution causes many serious diseases in humans. 

Due to the effect of radioactive pollution, the temperature of the environment increases, which creates many types of problems.