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Meaning and Definition of Personality and Personality Tests | Bednotesatoz


Meaning and Definition of Personality and Personality Tests 


The meaning of personality is applied to a person's external appearance, color and physical formation etc. But if seen from a psychological point of view, personality is a mirror of the whole behavior.

There is no permanent concept of personality. The form of personality keeps on changing from time to time. 

In fact, personality is called some manner by which a person adapts with his environment. 

On this basis we can say That if a person has proper adaptation with his environment, then his personality is very good.


Meaning of Personality 

The word personality is the Hindi adaptation of the English word "personality" . The word is derived from the Latin word "persona", which means costume or mask . While performing the play, the characters of the drama change into different forms by wearing it.

Definition of Personality 


Following are the definitions of personality according to various psychologists :

In the words of Deshiell

“A man personality is the total picture of his organized behaviour” – Deshiell

In the words of Allport

“Personality is the dynamic organization of those psycho-physical qualities within the individual which determines its unique adjustment to the environment. - Allport


In the words of the Munn

“Personality may be defined as the most characteristics integration of individual’s structures modes of behaviour , interests , attitudes , capacities and abilities” – Munn 

According to Garrison, Carl.

“Personality is the whole human being with his natural aptitudes and abilities and the knowledge held in his past; the organization and co-ordination of these factors is accomplished by the characteristics of behavior patterns, ideal values ​​and expectations.”

Types of Personality 


Education According to anthropologists there are following types of personality :

1. Constitutional or physiological point of view

Education psychologist Kreshmer has given the following types of personality on the basis of anatomy.

1. Asthenic

2. Athletic

3. Picnic

4. Mixed

Asthenic – This type of person is thin, flat, round, with soft body constitution, long limbs flattened and tight chest.


Shapely Body (Athletic) – This type of person has good flesh muscles. They have broad shoulders, long hands and athletic organs. This type of person suffers from psychosis when he is a psychopath.

Golkay  - This type of person is courageous, short, athletic and round in shape.

Dysplastic – or individuals with improper body proportions and special body formation. Many disparities of physical development are also found in the individuals of this type of personality.

2. Psychological Approach

Education psychologist Jung in his book has given the following types of personality on the basis of human nature.


1. Introvert personality

2. Extrovert personality 

Introverted personality

The characteristics of this personality, nature, Aditya, attitudes and other drivers do not appear in the external form. That is why it is called introvert. Its development is not in the external form but in the internal form.

Characteristics of Introverted Personality –

  • There is less attachment to the objects of the external world.
  • Introverted personalities are loners.
  • This behavior is not efficient.
  • They don't get trapped in jokes and unnecessary tricks etc.
  • People with introverted personality suffer from anxiety. They are aware of their things and sufferings.
  • These feelings are dominant, they keep on thinking about themselves.


Extroverted personality –

A person with an extroverted personality is completely different from a person with an introverted personality. A person with an extroverted personality

is more inclined towards external elements. He can express his thoughts and feelings clearly. He takes special interest in the material and social goals of the world.

Characteristics of extroverted personality –

  • In these, the amount of efficiency is more than the introvert person.
  • Conscious mind is selfish but in unconscious mind there is hatred towards selfishness.
  • He pleases everyone. And those who are surrounded by fans wish.
  • Behaviors are efficient. Thoughts are predominant. And decisions are taken according to feelings.
  • Those who do the work of courage and have a sense of determination towards the work.


3. Sociological Approach

Education psychologist Springer in his book Types of Man has given a sociological perspective in terms of personality types which are as follows.

1. Theoretical personality

2. Economic personality

3. Social personality

4. Political personality

5. Religious personality

6. Aesthetic personality

Theoretical Personality – This type of person gives more emphasis on principle than practice. He is a priest and worshiper of truth. Philosophers are such type of person.


Economic Personality – This type of person evaluates everything in life from an economic point of view. He wants to do everything for profit. He is completely practical and gives utmost importance to money.

Social personality – This type of person is a worshiper of love. He believes in kindness and sympathy. He has deep faith in truth and humanity.

Political Personality – This type of person believes in dominance control. Its main objective is to always maintain these things as they are.


Religious Personality – This type of personality is afraid of religion and has faith in spirituality, his life is simple and simple.

Artistic Personality – The type of person who sees everything from the point of view of art. He has a strong desire to establish a relationship between art and beauty. He is not reliable.

Characteristics of Personality 

The following characteristics of personality are found :

Self-consciousness – The first and main feature of personality is self-consciousness because of this feature, human being has been given the highest place among vegetable stripes and the presence of his personality is accepted.


Sociability – Other characteristics of personality Sociality cannot be imagined as a separate human being and his personality from the society. Self-consciousness develops in human only then. When he comes in contact with other people of the society, he does action and interaction.

Reconciliation – One has to relate not only Baba Tavaran's description to one's own inner life in general. Due to normalization, there is a change in his behavior. And as a result, the difference in his personality becomes visible.

Directed – Goal Attainment – ​​Human behavior always has a definite purpose. And it is always operated to achieve some or the other goal. Being aware of his behavior and goals, we can easily guess his personality.


Strong – Iksha Shakti – gives a person the ability to make his personality excellent by struggling with the difficulties of life. The weakness of this time disintegrates his personality by disorganizing his life.

Physical and mental health – Humans are human physical beings, so having good physical and mental health is an essential condition for his good personality.

Unity and Integration – How a person's body does not work alone. Similarly, no one else works alone in the personality. These elements are physical, mental, moral, social, emotional etc.


Continuity of development – ​​There is no stability in development. As a person changes in his work, the states of his thoughts and feelings keep on changing. In the same way, the form of his personality also changes. Developmental continuity continues from infancy to the end of life. Such a time never comes. When the personality can be said to have been fully developed and formed.

Factors affecting Personality 

Following are the major factors affecting the development of personality :

1. Heredity

2. Environment


Effect of heredity

In the development of personality, the effect of the elements derived from family tradition is seen.


Endocrine glands

Nervous system


Effect of environment

Following are the factors that affect the personality of a person.

1.Physical Environment

2.Social Environment

3.Cultural Environment


Personality test

Many methods and tests are used for the measurement of personality, some of these major methods are mentioned below.

Subjective method 

The following methods come under this :

Case History method

Questionnaire method

Interview method

Autobiography method 


Objective method

This includes the following methods

Controlled observation method

Rating scale method

Sociometric method

Physiological Test Method

Projective method 

Contextual Intuition Test ( TAT )

This test was developed by famous psychologists Morgan and Murray in 1935. It is also called the Plot Comprehension Test.


Child Apparent Test (CAT)

This test was developed by Dr. Ernest Criss but was first performed by Leopold Belack in 1948.

It is generally seen that CAT test is similar to TAT. The difference is that TAT is for adults and CAT is for children. This test is used to measure the personality of children in the age group of 3 to 11 years.

Rosarch ink blot test (RIT)

This test was created by the famous scientist Hermann Rosarch.


Story Completion Test (SCT)

In this test, some incomplete sentences and incomplete stories are presented in front of the examinees. The examinee expresses his wishes and labors in sentences and stories by some words and thoughts coming in his mind and on this basis the personality is measured. .