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Equality of Educational Opportunities b.ed notes | Equalization of Educational Opportunities

Equalization of Educational Opportunities in India


1. Provision for free and compulsory education.

2. Provision of scholarship

3. Provision of distance education.

4. Education for all.

5. Importance of women education.

6. Education for handicapped.

7. Education for minorities.

8. Adult education.

9. Education for backward


Article 28

Article 28(1) banned religious instruction in any educational institution completely maintained out of State funds.

Article 28(2) States, "Nothing in section (1) shall apply to an educational institution which is supervised by the State but has been accepted under any funding or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be presented in such institution."


Article 28(3) comes up with, "No citizen attending any educational institution accepted by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be needed to take part in any religious instruction that may be presented in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any placed attached there to unless such person is a minor, his guardian has given permission there to.

Article 29 & 30

Right of Minorities to Setup and Managed Educational Institutions

Article 29 States 

(i) "Any section of subject living within the territory of India|Bharat|Asian country|Asian nation} on any a part of India having a well outlined language, script or culture of its own shall have the proper to preserve an equivalent.

(ii) "No person shall be denied to require admission in the institution supported by the State or taking aid out of State fund on grounds solely of faith, race, caste, language or any of them.

Article 30 States

(i) "All minorities whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to setup and manage educational institutions of their choice"

(ii) The State shall not discriminate against any educational institution in respect of grand in aid, on the ground that it is under the management of minority, whether based on religion or language""


Provision : Articles 29 and 30 of the Indian constitution guarantee the minorities certain cultural and educational rights to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice whether based on religion or language.

Article 350

Instruction in Mother-tongue 

In a vast country like India there can be one national language but there cannot be one other tongue.

People of different regions have their own native languages and unless they possess good knowledge of their respective language, they cannot proceed towards true education.

Recognising the importance of mother-tongue, the Indian Constitution provides for the development of its instruction.

Provision : Article 350-A comes up with, "It shall be the aim of every State to provide sufficient facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary level of education of children belonging to linguistic minority groups : and the president may issue such directions to any State as he observes necessary or proper for securing the providing of such facilities.

Article 351

Promotion of Hindi

The Constitution also provides for the development and propagation of national language, Hindi.

Provision : Article 351 provides that, "It is the special responsibility of the centre to develop the national language i.e., Hindi so that it may serve as a medium of instruction for all the elements of the composite culture of India.


A number of steps have been taken by the Ministry of Education for the development and propagation of Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas.

Provision : India is a secular State and every religion has got the right to popularize and spread its religious ideals. Article 25(1) of the Inc ian Constitution guarantees all the citizens a right to freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practise and progress any religion.