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Universalization of Elementary Education B.Ed Notes


The first aspect is the accessibility of elementary education to cent percent children in the age group 6-14 years.

It is directed in our constitution to universalize elementary education within a period of 10 years from the commencement of the Constitution (26 Jan., 1950).

Henceforth we started taking concrete steps towards making elementary education universally accessible.

The major steps taken for it are--to make primary schools available within a distance of 1 km and upper primary schools within a distance of 2-3 km and to organise Non-formal education for those who fail to benefit from the formal education.

To overcome this problem it is necessary to further undertake the following steps :-

(1) The Central and the State Governments should increase the general as well as the plan budget for education and should spend 50% of it on elementary education.

Primary schools should be established wherever required and they should be properly furnished.

Schools should be opened specially in the SC, ST and Muslim dominated regions.

Separate senior primary schools should be opened for girls and the number of schools for the handicapped and the mentally retarded children should be increased.

It it necessary to have one such school for them at every district head quarter.


2) The Provincial Governments should ensure that the plans proposed for the universalisation of elementary education are carried out properly and the money earmarked for them is properly utilized and not siphoned off in individual pockets

3) Our Government also has certain limitations. It is not in a position to establish and conduct schools at every place.

Therefore, public cooperation is necessary in this field.

Recognition and financial aid should be given liberally to those voluntary institutions, individuals or trained teachers who establish school in such regions.

(4) Residential 'Ashram Schools' are already being established for the children from far distance hilly, desert and forest regions; their number should be increased as per requirement and demand.

(5) Fifth and the most important'step to be taken is-the population control.

Family planning should be made a legal compulsion for everyone.

The second aspect in the context of the universalisation of elementary education is the cent percent enrolment of children in the age group 6-14 years.

In the meantime the Government has undertaken many steps to achieve this goal, some of the major steps taken are--to develop awareness among parents, to reform the condition of schools, to arrange mid-day meal for children, to provide free text books to SC and ST children and to provide free meal and free school uniform to them.

The following measures may further prove more effective in achieving this goal


(1) Right to Education Act, 2009 should be implemented strictly.

(2) Primary schools within a distance of 1 km and upper primary schools within a distance of 2-3 km should be make available.

Civil facilities (like Ration Card) should be provided to people on the condition that they get their children enrolled in schools.

(3) The responsibility of the teachers should be fixed that they through individual contact should motivate parents to send their children to schools.

(4) At present, financial aid is being provided only to the SC and ST children.

This aid should be provided not on the basis of caste but to the children of all those people who are poor.

(5) The best solution to abolish the backwardness of the society is the expansion of education.

Free and compulsory elementary education as well as adult education is already being organized in this field; it should be given more momentum.

The third aspect in the context of the universalisation of elementary education is-the retention of cent percent children in schools.

For this purpose too, our Government has taken many steps. 

(1) Right to Education Act, 2009 should be implemented strictly


(2) To improve the condition of schools the Operation Black Board scheme is already under operation.

Its honest implementation should be ensured and the misappropriation of money should be checked.

At the same time, a code of conduct for the teachers and teacher unions should be made and the accountability to teachers should be fixed.

3) The curriculum should be reduced, burden of bag should be lessened and teaching should be made interesting.

(4) The Government administrative system should be made more effective.

At present, the responsibility to control the primary schools and their teachers is entrusted to Provincial Governments.

It is necessary that the primary schools are supervised honestly and those who evade their duty should be punished.

(5) Adult education should be given momentum to end the backwardness of the society and the economic policies should be changed to end its poverty.

The time has now arrived when the economic policies should be prepared from the poin of view of public interest and not on the basis of personal interests and politics of vote.

The fourth and the last aspect in the context of the universalisation of elementary education is-the completion of elementary education of cent percent children within the time period.

The Government has taken many steps in this field too.

Some Provincial Governments have taken steps in their own way too.

Some Provincial Governments made it compulsory to pass every child upto class VIII.

This will definitely result in detonation of elementary education.

In our opinion the following steps should be taken to resolve this problem


(1) The curriculum of elementary education should be prepared from the point of view of the average children.

The compulsory study of three languages at the senior primary level seems illogical.

The study of mother-tongue only should be made compulsory at this level.

Of course, for the intelligent students arrangements may be made for the study of ore or two languages as an option.

The unnecessary topics should be removed from other subjects.

(2) The condition of primary schools should be improved further.

Its shortcomings in men and material should be done away with and the teacher's accountability should be fixed.

It is also necessary that the primary teachers are not entrusted extra works other than census, election and disaster relief.

3) Awareness is already being developed among parents towards the education of their children and the means of mass communication are also being harnessed for this purpose. 

This work should be provided more pace and momentum.


(4) Children should also be made aware about the importance of education.

At the same time their problems should be understood.

They should be treated with love and sympathy and should be motivated to study.

Only the trained and devoted teachers can accomplish this work.

5) In the meantime, although a lot of reform has taken place in the examination system at the primary level, still to a great extent they depend on rote learning.

In case, if any student still fails at any level, then extra classes should be organised for them in summer vacation.

Their re-examination should be held in July and if they pass, they should be promoted to the next class.

This facility should be provided in the last examination of the primary level in the form of supplementary examination.