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Mudaliar Commission b.ed notes | Secondary Education Commission b.ed notes

Mudaliar Commission 1952-1953


Secondary Education Commission 

Mudaliar Commission (1952) was constituted to bring reforms in the structure of secondary education. The Government of India had established the 'Secondary Education Commission' on 23 September 1952 under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmi Swami Mudaliar, after whom it was called Mudaliar Commission. The commission recommended diversifying the curriculum, adding an intermediate level and starting a three-level undergraduate course, etc. 

Dr. AN Vasu was appointed as the secretary of this commission. Who used to visit different parts of the country. The governments of various states extended full support to the commission. The commission studied the problems of secondary education in the country and submitted its report on 29 September 1953. 

After attaining independence, the mudaliar commission 1952 - the necessity was felt that secondary education of the country must be re - evaluated. Hence a commission was appointed in 1952. It submitted its report in 1953. The chairman of the commission was Dr. A. Lakshmanaswami mudaliar.


Functions of Mudaliar Commission 


 The mudaliar commission (secondary education commission) has the following functions:

  •  Examine the current situation of secondary education in India.
  •  Work for restructuring and development of secondary education.
  •  Formulation of aims, organization and curriculum of secondary education.
  •  The importance of secondary education in the context of primary, basic and higher education.
  •  Co - relation of different types of secondary schools.
  •  To study other problems so as to ensure convergence of secondary education throughout the country as the country needs it.


Objectives of Mudaliar Commission 


 As per the secondary education commission, the aims of the education were determined as under :

Development of democratic citizenship - in that objective, to appreciate the social and cultural and political qualities of your country, to remove the shortcomings and weaknesses of your country, to serve the merits of your country, to generate a sense of working for the national interest by discarding personal interests and interests and developing the spirit of democracy in the country.

Vocational progress: with this aim, the child should have professional knowledge until he has finished his education.


Personality development - child 's personality must be considered and worked according to all possibility of development and trained to be a good citizen.

The training of leadership - the secondary education commission has also placed training of leadership for the success of democracy in education.


Recommendations of Mudaliar Commission


The reorganization of the mudaliar commission 's secondary education has been suggested as under :

Time limit - the period of secondary education is 11 to 17 years. There should be no opposition to the secondary and basic education system.

Three years degree courses - the commission has suggested setting up the intermediate level of higher secondary 11 years and 3 years degree courses.

The courses variations - the commission has introduced different courses so that every student can choose the subjects according to their taste. These courses begin from the first year of the secondary stage.


Internal assessment - commission has given important place to the assessment of the school 's articles in this method will ensure correct assessment of students and improve the standard of discipline in schools.

Technical education - commission 's recommendations are as follows:

  •  Technical school should run a large number of multipurpose schools or its parts.
  •  In large cities central technical schools should be established to cater to the needs of local schools.
  •  Technical and technological schools should be set up in consultation with various academia.

Study of languages - At the secondary level, the mother tongue or regional language should be the medium of instruction. It should provide special facilities to linguistic minorities.

At the middle level, every child must have two languages. Hindi and English should be applicable at the junior basic level.

Religious and moral education - religious and moral education should be imparted in schools on voluntary basis.

Collaborative activities - Collaborative activities may be considered as an integral part of the learning process.

The scout movement should be encouraged.

NCC should be spread by the central government.

First aid, Red Cross, scout, etc. should be encouraged in all schools.

Merits of Commission 

  • Activity based learning.
  • Stress on agricultural education.
  • Discuss the objectives of secondary education.
  • Child Centered Education.
  • Improvement in salary and status of teachers.
  • co-curricular activities.
  • No more stress on external exams.
  • Stress on multi-purpose schools.
  • Suggestion to open technical schools near industries.

Defects of Secondary Education 

  • Education system to be based on books.
  • One sided education.
  • Non-inclusion of practical subjects.
  • Lack of rapport/interaction with teachers and students. 
  • difficult to evaluate.
  • Curriculum being boring and monotonous.
  • Defective teaching methods.
  • Large number of students in the class.
  • Implementation of English medium of instruction.

New format for restructuring secondary education 

  • The duration of secondary education should be of 7 years. It should start after passing class 5 of primary education. 
  • Adequate number of polytechnic and technical schools should be established.
  • This period of secondary education should be divided into two parts. In the first part, junior education for 3 years and in the second part for 4 years, higher secondary education.
  • Intermediate class of class XI and XII should be changed, class 11th should be linked to high school and class 12th to university.
  • Undergraduate course should be made of 3 years, along with this, 1 year pre-university course should be kept for students taking admission in universities from secondary colleges.
  • Students who pass class 11 should be allowed admission in various professional and technical institutions.
  • There should be special management on agriculture education in rural schools, along with this, arrangements should also be made for education of horticulture, animal husbandry, cottage industry.
  • Some special residential schools should also be opened at the secondary level, in which children are given mid-day meals.
  • Scholarship should be given to deserving students.
  • Schools should also be managed for the education of the blind, deaf and dumb.
  • What should be done by the government for the expansion of technical education by imposing industry education tax on the industries and the money received from it.
  • Even if there is no need for special difference in the education of boys and girls, there should be proper arrangements for the study of 'home science' for girls.

Problematic Suggestions on administration of Mudaliar Commission 


The director of education be responsible for advising the education minister. He should also act as the joint secretary.

A committee of education ministers should be formed for the development of education of the central and state government.

Be a board of 25 members. The director of education should be the chairman, a teacher 's training board.

There should be high merit of the inspectors. 10 years of experience teacher should be appointed as head master training college teacher.

Recognition of new schools can be given if they meet the prescribed criteria.

Schools should be established in rural areas. They got the help of construction of buildings. Different courses may be taken care of in future schools.

The school function should be such that no community is bothered.

Visit government sectors from 16 to 18, 19 to 21, 22 to 24 years of age 50% elections should be held directly.


Economical problem Suggestions of Mudaliar Commission 


Work in collaboration with the state and the centre. The board of vocational education should be made up for development of vocational education with elected representatives from the concerned ministries.

Bear the responsibility of central government for reorganization of secondary education.

Committee on educational institutions and property tax should not be imposed on the field of sports.


The recommendations of the secondary education commission were supported by the people at that time; things have changed today; the kothari commission was formed in the changing circumstances and the recommendations it made made that led to sweeping changes at the secondary level.

Delors Commission Report

Hartog Committee 1929