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Methods of Teaching Geography b.ed notes | Pedagogy of Geography b.ed notes


Methods of Teaching Geography b.ed notes | Teaching Methods of Geography 



Successful teachers always keep in view that teaching must "be dynamic, challenging and in accordance with the learner's comprehension.

"Every child is unique and so is the way we work.

A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner.


  • Observation Method 
  • Lecture Method
  • Inductive Method 
  • Deductive Method
  • Excursion Method
  • Demonstration Method 
  • Project Method 
  • Concentric Method 
  • Problem Solving Method 

Pedagogy of Geography b.ed notes


Observation Method

Observation method is associated with gathering data by viewing. It is one of the most useful methods of data collection for research especially in social science. This method brings the students of geography into direct relationship with the environment.

The principles aspects of observation method are:

  • To observe
  • To record
  • To interpret


Observation method for teaching geography may be used inside the class-room as well as outside the class-room.

Inside Classroom Aids:

Globes & Maps 

Charts & Models

Outside Classroom Aids:

Field Trips


Lecture Method


Lecture method is a very formal method of teaching any subject. It is a teachercontrolled & information centered approach in which the teacher works as a soleresource in classroom instruction.

In lecture method only the teacher talks & students are passive listeners. Since the student do not actively participate in this method of teaching, this is a teachercontrolled & information centered method.

Lecture method is most commonly followed in colleges and in schools in big classes.


This method of teaching can be made more beneficial if the teacher encourages his students to take notes during the lesson.

Inductive Method

Inductive method is based on the process of induction. It leads from particular to general and from examples to general rules/formulas.

It helps in understanding and provides opportunity of active participation to the students.

Inductive method is based on actual observation, thinking and experimentation

For Example:


Teacher of class 6 asks students to observe the Globe and recognize the horizontal and vertical lines, then teaches how parallels and meridians are used to locate places.

Deductive Method

Deductive method is a technique of teaching in which a formula, a rule, a principle is given and examples are solved by applying the given formulas.

This method leads from general to particular.

For Example:

Before teaching maps to class 8, teacher first provides the symbols of various features in map and ask students to search according to the symbols provided.


Locate Godavari river,

Colour Deccan Plateau,

Locate the region where coal is found in large quantity,

Locate the most densely populated region, etc.

Excursion Method

The word 'Excursion' means a journey, trip, tour planned for social studies students in which the students actually visit places or site and has the first hand experience which excursion results in easy, interesting and effective learning.

It provides ample opportunities to student for 'seeing' 'hearing' examining, gathering data, and asking questions, such excursion are most conducive to learning.



  • Cultural Heritage sites
  • Aquarium
  • Museum
  • Planetarium 
  • Industrial sites 

Demonstration Method

A Demonstration method is a teaching method used to communicate an idea with the aid of visuals such as flip charts, posters, power point, etc. It is a traditional method in teaching geography and science.

A demonstration is the process of teaching someone how to make or do something in a tep-by-step process.


In order to make Demonstration Method successful, three things are necessary:

  • The objects displayed should not be too small.
  • Use clear language for better understanding of concepts.
  • The pupils should be able to question teachers in order to remove their difficulties.

Project Method

Project method is one of the modern method of teaching. This method is based on the philosophy of Pragmatism and the principle of 'Learning by doing'


In this strategy pupils perform constructive activities in natural condition. A project is a list of real life that has been imparted into the school.

Project Method is based on three laws of Thorndike:

  • Law of Effect
  • Law of Readiness
  • Law of Exercise

For example: Models, Charts etc.

Concentric Method 


Concentric Method is often called Spiral Approach because this method implies breaking up of topics into different subtopics and the portion is allotted to different grades.

It is a psychological approach of teaching content.

Since, topic is broken into number of sub topics according to the difficulty level of students, they understands all the aspects of concept in depth.

This is a system of organising a course rather than a method of teaching.

Example: Different landforms of the earth.

Problem Solving Method


Problem solving is an important strategy in the process of higher levels of learning that involve transfer and application of the knowledge and understanding to new situations.

This strategy make learners think rationally, understand intellectual processes and practice intellectual skills.

In a problem solving method, children learn by working on problems.

This enables the students to learn new knowledge by facing the problems to be solved. The students are expected to observe, understand, analyze, interpret find solutions, and perform applications that lead to a holistic understanding of the concept.



There is no single teaching method that is suitable for all learners. All these teaching and learning methods are to be used interchangeably. It is advised that a teacher should use a variety of teaching and learning methods in a classroom so as to provide a great variability of activities in the teaching and learning process.