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Principles of Language Teaching b.ed notes | Language learning and Language Acquisition


Language learning and Language Acquisition 


Language- “Language is the means by which we express our thoughts. Language is that group of words and sentences etc. uttered by the mouth, through which the matter of the mind is told. Generally speaking, language is called the medium of ideological exchange.

Language begins with the birth of man. One acquires proficiency in a language by perfecting various skills such as speaking, reading and writing. Language acquisition is an ongoing process.

Meaning- Language is derived from the root "Bhash" of Sanskrit, it means "to speak" .


Nature of Language 


Language is an acquired asset that can be acquired only through use, and it is expanded only through exchange, that is, it is not hereditary.

Language is a social and traditional thing.

Language is learned by imitation.

There is constant change in language, that is, it is changeable.

Each language has its own arrangement, which reveals its form, such as sound-form-sentence, element-meaning, element-alphabet, element-word, form-sentence, structure-meaningful use.

Language leads from difficulty to success.

Each language has its own script. Like Hindi-Devanagari, English-Roman, Urdu-Farsi.

Language is linked to culture and civilization, and language also has boundary constraints.


Language Acquisition Process


The meaning of acquisition is - "Acquiring any language can be acquired by a person's own efforts and language is an acquired asset."

The way the child hears people speaking and sees writing in the environment around him. He tries to learn it by imitation. That is, language is acquired through imitation.

Linguistic competence is a skill that is acquired. The process of acquisition starts from the birth of the child.

Practice plays an important role in language acquisition.


Through language acquisition, the child learns his first language which is his mother tongue.

According to Chomsky - children acquire language from their environment, they have an innate language acquisition mechanism.

Language acquisition is a subconscious process. Language learners are similarly unaware that they are also learning a language.

Language acquisition means learning a language indirectly, informally and naturally.


Language learning process 


Learning means learning.

According to Gates – Learning is the transformation of behavior by Anwar.

According to Crow and Crow – Learning is the acquisition of habits, knowledge and attitudes.

According to Pavlov, learning is the formation of habit as a result of adapted response.


Learning is a mental process that continues throughout life.

In learning, the child moves towards maturity.

According to Woodworth – Learning is a process of development.

Learning is the change in behavior through experience.



The learning process goes on for life.

Learning is change - a person changes his behavior, thoughts, desires, feelings, etc. by learning from his own and others' experience. 

Learning is adaptation, only by learning can a person adapt himself to new situations. 

Learning is universal, all living beings learn. 

Learning is the organization of experiences Learning is the organization of new old experiences. 

Learning is both individual and social. 

Language learning involves formal knowledge/direct learning of a language.


Principles of Language Teaching 


Following are some of the principles related to language teaching

1. Theory of motivation and interest

According to the theory, it is necessary to generate interest in the language and its course material. Teaching methods should be selected according to the interest and needs of the children.

2. Theory of creativity

Does the child experience pleasure in learning by doing or the major educationists like Froebel, Dewey, Montessori have emphasized on this principle, it is necessary for the students to be continuously active during language teaching, this increases the interest of the students in the study, such as questions asking and doing oral and written work


3. Principle of practice 

According to this, the work that a person does repeatedly, he learns it quickly and forgets the work that he does not do for a long time, so at the time of language teaching, students should keep practicing, for example, to practice speaking new words. Needed . 

4. Theory of coordination

Psychologists have proved that children take more interest in those subjects and activities which are related to their real life, so while teaching lessons, teachers should try to connect it with the life of the students so that the students can grasp it quickly. 


5. Theory of individual difference

Symbol child is different from each other, individual differences are found in the students in the class, that's why language teaching should be done keeping in mind the individual differences, keeping in mind the personal problems of the students, efforts should be made to solve them. 

6. Theory of Integrated Manner

The main objective of language teaching is that students should master all the skills of the language such as reading skills, listening skills, reading skills, writing skills. It is very important to pay proper attention to all these skills. Writing should be taught sequentially, its order is as follows- listening-reading-reading-writing. 


7. Theory of imitation

Children learn quickly by imitation. Children try to learn by imitating their teacher's speaking, writing, voice and speed etc. Therefore, teachers themselves should keep their pronunciation, speaking speed, writing pure and clean. 

8. Theory of teaching formula

There are some formulas of language teaching, teacher should do teaching work keeping these formulas in mind during language teaching, it makes learning easier for students and teaching is more effective.


9. Child centered theory

At the time of language teaching, a teacher should always keep in mind that the child is the center of education and teaching should be done keeping in mind the child's ability, ability, interest and level.