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Causes of inequality in girls education in India | Causes of Inequality in Education


Causes of inequality in girls education in India

  • In a democratic country, girl education has great importance from political, social, religious, cultural and economic point of view. 
  • Women's education educates the entire family. 
  • Educated women do not lag behind men in any field of work. 
  • In some areas, women have proven to be more efficient than men – such as in the fields of education, medicine and nursing. 
  • If the girl child is given proper education, she can contribute to the all-round progress of the nation by becoming a skilled leader, social worker, skilled businessman, political leader and even a skilled engineer, technician, information technology, advocate, doctor. 
  • Through education, women can become aware of their rights.
  • There is a wide disparity visible in the education of adult girls in India. 
  • According to the country's census 2001, the literacy rate of men was 75.85 and that of women was 54.16 - thus the gap of literacy rate between men and women was 21.69. 
  • This gap was 18.3 percent in 1951 census, 25.05 percent in 1961, 23.98 percent in 1971, 26.62 percent in 1981 and 24.84 percent in 1991. 
  • Obviously, the authentic data of the Indian census shows that the literacy rate of women/girls in India is unequal as compared to boys/men and hence it is worrying. 

  • Two situations make the nature of girls' education even more worrying - firstly the drop out of girls' school and secondly the declining status of girls in higher education level.
  • If we look at the history, we find that women have been considered worthy of worship in religious, ideological and religious terms, but due to their field of work being limited to the four walls of the house, less attention has been paid to their education. 
  • In the Vedic period, girls mostly received education within the family because there was no practice of separate Gurukul, Ashram, etc. for them. Only in some Gurukuls are there examples of the Guru's daughter being involved in education. 
  • In the Vedic period, girls were taught religion, literature, dance, music, poetry etc. at home. Although in the Vedic period, examples of women like Vidushi Ghosha, Gargi, Atreyi, Shakuntala, Urvashi, Apala are found in Rigveda who were proficient in the study of Vedas. 
  • In the last phase of the Vedic period, around 200 BC, the lowering of the marriage age of girls created obstacles in their path to education. 
  • In the Buddhist era, Gautam Buddha gave new life to the education of girls by allowing them to enter his Sangha, but that permission was given only to the girls of elite and professional classes. 
  • Due to this, majority of ordinary girls were deprived of education. 
  • Mass education, i.e. efforts to open the doors of education for all girls, were thus unavailable in the Vedic period and the Buddhist period.
  • By the medieval period (Muslim period), the condition of women in India went from bad to worse. The worse condition of women described in the Paranic literature before this period is also responsible for their illiteracy. 
  • In some Puranas, women were called Shudras and at some places they were called the gates of hell. Due to this, the mentality of the society towards the female gender became worse.
  • There was no proper system of education for women during the Muslim period. 
  • Burka system – Due to the high prevalence of purdah system among Muslims, it was difficult for girls to leave the house. 
  • During this period, the system of women's education was limited only to the royal families and elite class and some middle class Muslim women. 
  • That is, the philosophy of the form of public education is unavailable here also. 

  • During the Muslim period, girls were able to acquire some literacy knowledge along with a very limited number of boys in mosques and maktabs. 
  • The path of girls' education started getting blocked due to fear among the Hindu class due to Muslim invaders regarding the safety of their girls, child marriage becoming prevalent etc.
  • Even during the East India Company and British period, Indians did not see much improvement in the condition of girls' education in India. 
  • Anglo Indian, Parsi and Christian girls definitely got education. 
  • Lord Macaulay advocated education only for the upper class of the society under the filtration theory. His argument was that with this the opportunity of education will spread to the common class in the same way as the water kept in the vessels above gets filtered into the vessels below. 
  • This theory was a clever theory so that the huge amount of money spent in the name of public education could be saved and education could be given to the limited number of cultured, already educated Indians.

  • The pathetic condition of girls' education during the British period is evident from a government document of Lord Curzon of 1904, according to which only 1 girl out of 40 girls (i.e. 2.5%) was in education. 
  • During Curzon's tenure, only 4.24 lakh girls were getting education in different types of schools all over India and among them (1)/(3) were Anglo Indians or Indian Christians.
  • The theme of the year is that after attaining independence, the attention of the country's leaders turned towards education and effective measures for girls' education. 
  • Although Mahatma Gandhi also made a provision for the education of girls along with boys of 7 to 14 years of age in his basic education, but due to the British rule, basic education could not get the required support.

  • After independence, rapid planned development of girls' education is important in India. 
  • After independence, a new progressive approach towards girls' education developed. 
  • Under the newly created Constitution, there were provisions to give equal status to women and special rights to women. 
  • Article 15(1), 16(1), 16(2) of the Constitution of India states that no citizen shall be discriminated against on the basis of sex. 
  • The Government of India constituted the National Commission for Women under the chairmanship of Mrs. Jayanti Patnaik for the upliftment of women.


  • Emphasizing on women's education, the Radhakrishnan Commission (1948-49) constituted for higher education (university) gave these suggestions - women should be taught to be well-wishers and mistresses, there should be provision for higher education in home management for women, teachers should be trained as teachers. 
  • Equal pay scale should be given, such a curriculum should be made which can give girls an equal place in the society. 
  • More budget allocation for girls' education and new educational schemes were started by the Planning Commission in the first and second five year plans. 
  • National Women's Education Committee (1958), known as Durgabai Deshmukh Committee, gave important suggestions for girls' education in 1959. 
  • Mudaliar Commission and Kothari Commission also gave suggestions for girls' education. 

The following suggestions were given in the National Education Policy 1986 – 

(1) Emphasis on creation of environment for girls' education, 

(2) Both formal and informal education, 

(3) Assistance programs for girls' education, 

(4) Creation of Supplementary curriculum.

(5) Use of voluntary organizations in literacy programs for illiterate women, etc. 

  • Professor Ramamurthy Committee (1991) suggested separate budget provision for women's education and encouraging scholarships for girls, free textbooks etc. 
  • At present, all the provincial governments and the Central Human Resource Ministry are doing commendable work related to increase in girl enrollment, dissemination of incentive schemes and budget arrangements. 
  • In fact, girls were deprived of educational opportunities and now efforts are being made to bring progress among them by creating awareness about education, providing facilities etc.


Causes of Inequality in Education in India

Reasons for inequality in girls' education - It is clear that the condition of girls' education has been weaker than that of boys in all levels and areas of education for centuries and the same gap continues in the education of boys and girls even in the present times. 

Its main and fundamental reasons are as follows –

(1) Public mentality – 

Most of the people have this mentality that education of girls is not necessary and they have to get a job. It is enough if they just learn to write letters and do household work. 

Due to this mentality, in some families only primary education and in some even middle and in some matriculation education is considered sufficient and the opportunities for higher education above this are available only to lucky girls. 

Due to this public mentality, girls' education has been adversely affected from past till today. 

The public mentality towards higher education of boys also appears to be slightly different in comparison to girls' education. 

Boys are given higher education considering them to be the ones who will increase the lineage, earn and support them in old age and for girls, it is believed that if they are taught more then they will have to find a more educated boy for whom more dowry will have to be given.


(2) Making girls do household work – 

In most of the urban slums and rural areas, girls of school age are employed in non-educational work like taking care of siblings, cooking, washing clothes, fetching fuel, fodder, water, rearing goats and cows etc. 

And despite being enrolled in school, their going to school to study is not given as much seriousness as is given to children. 

Due to being busy in household work, girls are not able to find time to study even the homework given by school or the prescribed lessons. 

Due to this many girls stop studying. This is one of the main reasons for girls leaving school.

(3) Lack of girls' schools - 

Due to lack of separate schools for girls, many parents do not like to send their girls to such schools where there is co-education. 

Even if there is a school for the girl child, the parents hesitate in sending the girl child because it is far away from home. 

After primary school, there will be no school nearby, which is a big hindrance in the direction of girls' education.


(4) Bad practices – 

The practice of purdah and burqa of girls in the Muslim community does not allow them to pursue higher education. 

In many Hindu castes too, girls miss out on education due to the practice of purdah or due to child marriage, early engagement etc.

(5) Girl Labor System – 

Due to poverty, girls from many families are unable to go to school for studies because they work in other people's homes like washing utensils, clothes, cooking, massaging etc.

(6) Lack of strict law of compulsory education –

Although the Compulsory Child Education Act has been implemented by the Central Government in 2009, under which education of boys and girls below 14 years of age has been made compulsory and employing such children and not sending them to school has also been declared a legal offence, but the reality on the ground is more visible in the legal papers rather than at the level. This is the reason why even today many girls are deprived of education.


(7) Lack of schemes to promote girls' education - 

Although many schemes of the Central Government and governments of various states to promote girls' education are currently running, the major ones are - Cycle Supply Scheme, Mid Day Meal Scheme, Hostel Shelter Scheme, Scholarship Scheme. , Literacy Promotion Scheme, Kasturba Gandhi Girls Hostel Scheme, Anganwadi Scheme, Kamdhenu Scheme (Maharashtra), Kishori Balika Yojana (Bihar), Swasth Sakha Yojana (UP), Panchdhara Yojana (MP), Beti Bajao Beti Padhao Yojana, Girl Child Protection Scheme, Laptop Supply Scheme etc. 

There is lack of big budget allocation in many schemes due to which girls education schemes are not getting the expected pace. 

There are many general schemes which are equally applicable for the education of boys and girls, which will have to be diverted towards giving special encouragement to girls' education so that the gender gap can be removed. 

A scheme to provide lifelong scholarship for specially talented and merit girl students will also have to be implemented. 

There is a need to start new education schemes for girls' higher education and technical education.

(8) Incidents of molestation of girls – 

In many areas, girls are not able to go to school because goonda elements and anti-social elements do misdeeds like harassing and molesting girls. Such incidents are a hindrance in the progress of girl education.


(9) Poverty - 

Due to poverty, many poor families are unable to bear the expenses of girls' tuition fee, uniform, books and stationery, transportation vehicle etc., hence they either give up going to school or opt for higher education. Unable to orientate.

(10) Lack of job opportunities – 

Even for well-educated girls, job opportunities are less, hence even after being educated, they feel unemployed and remain frustrated. 

Even after spending money on education, non-availability of job opportunities also creates aversion among them towards education. 

Women educated in private sector schools, hospitals etc. do not get adequate salaries and are unable to even spend for their own expenses from their salaries. 

The lack of education above all makes them frustrated. The parents of girls do not agree to make them work away from home. This is also a hindrance especially in the direction of higher education for girls.

(11) Restructuring of curriculum and lack of suitable textbooks –

Feminine courses should be prepared for post-matriculation education of girls, especially in nursing, teaching, medicine, beautician, laundry, dress designing, film making, fashion, horticulture. 

It should conduct higher education courses related to fields like industry, mall centres, television and radio, journalism etc. 

Suitable textbooks should also be prepared for the new modern curriculum. With these efforts, new doors will open in the direction of girls' education and progress will be seen in women's education.


(12) Shortage of female staff in schools and colleges – 

One of the reasons for the hindrance in girls' education is that there is a shortage of female teachers in schools and colleges, due to which many girls are not able to mingle in these institutions in the education process and feel like strangers. Experience. The students have good company with female teachers who motivate them to get proper education.

(13) Lack of distance higher education – 

It is not possible for girls from families with many traditional ideas to get education by staying away from home in hostels etc. In such a situation, it is more favorable for girls to do higher education courses through distance education while staying at home.



To overcome the lack of education of girls compared to boys, it is not only necessary to develop educational facilities extensively but it is also necessary to remove the obstacles in the way of girls' education. 

There is also a need to take concrete and effective measures to address the causes of inequality in girls' education. 

For this, there is a need to take special schemes, more budget allocation along with strict and favorable steps of the administration.