## Methods of Teaching Mathematics

The way the teacher imparts knowledge to the learner is called teaching methods . It is used in a very broad sense, on the one hand many systems and schemes are included under it and on the other hand many processes of teaching are also included. Sometimes people consider methods as methods; But it is a mistake to do so. Tactics can be part of a method, not the entire method. The same trick can be used in multiple methods.

(1) Analytics method

(2) Synthesis method

(3) Inductive method

(4) Deductive Method

(5) Laboratory method

(6) Heuristic method

(7) Problem-solving method

(8) Project method

(9) Lecture method

(10) Play Way method

### Maths Teaching Methods

#### 1. Analytic method:

In this method we go from unknown to known. Ex- Prove that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles.

It is used to prove the line math theorem.

**Advantage:**

1. Emphasizes on solving the problem yourself, finding a solution, permanent knowledge is generated.

2. It is a method of psychology which generates interest towards study in the child.

3. The ability to search (exploratory ability) develops.

**Disadvantage:**

Takes more time.

It is considered unsuitable for children of small class.

Skilled teacher is required.

Reasoning power is needed.

#### 2. Synthesis method :

This method is complementary to the analysis method. In this method, information obtained from small sections is used by combining (synthesis) from the known to the unknown.

Ex- A = B (Known)

B = C (Known)

Hence A = C means the unknown is discovered using known things.

**Advantage :**

This method is simple, subtle and orderly.

The solution to the problem comes out quickly, that means it takes less time.

Helps in the development of memory power.

This is a useful method for the mentally retarded students.

Most of the mathematical problems are solved by this method only.

**Disadvantage:**

Emphasizes the tendency to rote.

Exploration ability (searching) is not developed.

Acquired knowledge is temporary.

It does not contribute to the development of logical ability and is a thoughtless method.

**Maths Pedagogy Notes**

#### 3. Inductive method:

In this method, first examples are placed in front of the students, then rules are made on the basis of them.

In this method three tasks are done.

1. From specific to general.

2. From the known to the unknown.

3. From gross to subtle.

**Advantage:**

It is a scientific method.

Working on your own leads to more permanent learning.

Practical and beneficial method in life.

Through this, the child's ability to work on his own develops, the child is always curious.

This is a useful method for small classes.

By this, interest in mathematics remains in the child.

**Disadvantage:**

This is a slow method and takes more time.

More hard work is required, more thinking is required.

The results are not absolute truth, many times students reach to wrong conclusions.

This method cannot always be used in the class.

#### 4. Deductive Method :

This method is opposite to the induction method, in this method the definition, formula and instructions are first told, then it is proved to be true.

In this, let's go from rule to example.

From general to specific.

From subtle to gross.

**Advantage:**

This method makes mathematics teaching very easy.

By this method, the student gains knowledge very quickly in a very simple way.

Deduction method proves helpful in teaching arithmetic and algebra.

Less labor and time is saved.

Memory power develops.

**Disadvantage:**

This is a non-scientific method because in this the students do not search for rules and formulas themselves but memorize them.

The knowledge gained in this is clearly visible.

#### 5. Laboratory method :

In this method, the students themselves check the truth of the facts, rules and principles of mathematics with the help of instruments, equipment and other materials in the mathematics laboratory. The principle of learning by doing is emphasized in this method.

ex. Proving the Pythagorean theorem in the laboratory.

**Advantage:**

Students learn to use laboratory equipment efficiently.

The learning done in the laboratory is permanent.

Interesting method.

Reasoning ability develops.

**Disadvantage:**

This is an expensive method.

It is not useful for small classes as children start playing with the equipment instead of learning.

Can be used for small number of classes.

#### 6. Heuristic method:

The word heuristic comes from a Greek word Heurisco which means ' I seek' This method was discovered by Armstrong .

It is clear from the word heuristic that this method is a method of self-discovery or self-learning. This method is also used for science. In this method, the teacher does not directly tell about any subject matter, but asks the students to find out by themselves through questions. In this method, the students themselves become explorers or inventors instead of just being passive cries.

**Advantage:**

Through this method, reasoning, imagination, thinking, observation, comparison etc. develop in the student.

This method proves to be very beneficial in teaching mathematics.

This method puts the student in a position to seek knowledge.

This method motivates the students to do math work on their own and builds the habit of self-study.

In this the student himself becomes the discoverer.

**Disadvantage:**

If only useful for students of exceptional intelligence, because students of average intelligence are unable to explore on their own.

This method is unsuitable for small classes.

This method can lead students to wrong rules, conclusions or principles because their brain is not mature enough to understand their mistake.

#### 7. Problem- solving method :

In this method, the teacher puts a problem in front of the students and asks the students to give their ideas and suggestions to solve the problem. Students try to solve that problem with their logic and decision. The problem should be related to the life of the child. In this method the problem is simple. This method works on the principle of learning by doing.

**Advantage:**

This method gives inspiration to move forward in a scientific way.

In this method the student is always active.

In this method, students independently work on their own, the reasoning power of the students is developed.

Problem solving ability is developed in the students.

**Disadvantage:**

If the problem is difficult, the student loses interest in the subject

If the language of the problem is not simple then the list of students gets reduced

takes more time

#### 8. Project method:

This method was first used by Kilpatrick , in this method, the entire work is done by planning, in this the student works through his own reasoning power to solve any problem and it gets solved.

**Advantage:**

Develops creative and creative power in the student

Students develop the ability to observe, reason and make decisions

**Disadvantage:**

Not all lessons can be taught using this

#### 9. Lecture method :

This is the most popular method of teaching. In this method, a teacher lectures about a subject or problem. The lecture should be logical, systematic and attractive so that the student's attention remains focused on the subject. Question answers and examples are used in this method.

**Advantage:**

This is the easiest method to study any subject.

In this, the attention of the students remains focused on the subject.

**Disadvantage:**

In this method the student remains passive.

This method does not emphasize on learning by doing.

Individual differences are not taken into consideration in this.

#### 10. Play Way method:

In this method, the teacher gives complete knowledge to the students through the game, this method has been given by Froebel , it has been named by Henry Coldwell Cook, in this method, an attempt has been made to make education completely game centered.

**Advantage:**

If students have a natural interest in sports, then the children's mind remains engaged.

All round development of children takes place by this method.

This method is based on the principle of Karo and Shikha.

**Disadvantage: **

In some children, there is difficulty in this method due to physical weakness.

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