Ad Space

Most Popular

Popular Posts

Random Posts

Skip to main content

Cognitive theory of learning b.ed notes | What is Gestalt theory of learning ?


Cognitive theory of learning 


1. Information Processing Theory

Information processing theory states that the human brain functions like a computer. Like a computer, it receives information, operates on it, transforms its type and content, stores information, retrieves it, and responds to it. 

According to this theory, learning is a cognitive process. In this process, the brain collects information like a computer and organizes it in terms of prior knowledge. This process is called encoding. The process of storing information is called storage. The process of retrieving information, when needed, is called retrieval


This entire system is directed by control procedures that determine when and how information will pass through this system. 

Information processing is encoded in sensory memory where perception and attention determine what will be stored in working memory for future use.

Information that has been thoroughly processed and associated with prior knowledge becomes part of long-term memory that can be stimulated to return to working memory. 


2. Gestalt theory of learning 

Gestalt is a German word meaning whole or whole. This gives an understanding of the totality of an object, experience, situation or problem. 

Gestaltists believe that when we perceive a problem, we do not analyze it into parts, but we perceive its whole. 

Analyzing into parts destroys the totality of the object. A person takes an object in a unit and sheds light on its different parts. 

After seeing and understanding an object in its complete form, it is easier to study its parts.


Gestaltists consider learning to be a purposeful, exploratory and creative process. According to him, the learner who is learning something in the second semester first curriculum, perceives it in a holistic way.

And correctly analyzes the combinations contained in it. The ability of a person to perceive and intelligently respond to the environment is called insight

Insight is such a mental ability by which the solution to a problem suddenly comes to mind. Insight lies in perfection.


Perception of a problem in its full form creates understanding or insight for its solution, in which the pattern of different stimuli of the problem or situation is formed simultaneously, which suddenly leads to the solution of the problem. 

According to Kohler, the meaning of insight is to grasp the solution suddenly in which such a process starts which goes on according to the situation. 

Rules of absolutes 


1. Structuralism: According to this rule, a person sees a combination of different stimuli of a problem or situation as a definite structure, from which he develops insight to solve the problem. 

2. Similarity: Objects which are similar in shape are seen as distinct from a group of other objects.


3. Sanidhya: According to this rule, the things which are near appear in a group.

These lines appear as three groups of lines due to their proximity to each other.

4. Closure: Four lines have been drawn, but they look like a quadrilateral because our brain does not observe the spaces between these lines.

Role of Gestalt theory in learning


The experiments of Kohler and Koffka are especially famous in the context of Gestalt's role in learning.

Kohler showed through his experiments that man does not learn by trial and error, but when a new problem arises, he observes the situation and perceives it completely keeping in mind the fulfillment of his purpose. 

This process continues until it solves the problem or fulfills the objective. This type of learning is called insightful learning.


Experiment no. 1 - 

Kohler kept a hungry chimpanzee named Sultan in a cage with a stick attached to it. 

Bananas were placed outside the cage at such a distance that they could be easily reached with the help of a stick. 

The hungry chimpanzee got upset seeing the banana and he tried a lot to get the banana but he could not get the banana. 

Finally, his eyes fell on the stick kept inside the cage and combining the length of the stick with the distance of the banana from the cage, he lifted the stick and got the banana with its help.


Experiment no. 2 - 

In the second experiment, two sticks were placed in the cage, which could be joined together. 

Now the banana was placed at such a distance that it could be obtained only when the chipmunk joined the two sticks to make one. 

The chimpanzee kept trying with one stick to get the banana, when suddenly he saw the other stick and picked it up too. 

On perceiving the total length of both the sticks and the distance of the banana from the cage, the chimpanzee suddenly got an idea and made a stick by joining both the sticks and got the banana with its help.


Experiment No. 3 - 

In this experiment, two boxes were placed inside the cage and a banana was suspended from the ceiling of the cage at such a height that it could be reached only when the chimpanzee placed both the boxes one above the other. 

He tried many times to get the banana by jumping but he failed. 

After that he climbed on top of a box and started trying to catch the banana but he did not get success. 

Suddenly his eyes fell on another box. 

He put one box above the other box and got the banana.


In this way, Kohler's experiment proved that animals like humans or chimpanzees reorganize a problem or situation by establishing connections and relationships between different parts, which leads to the development of sudden insight or understanding to solve the problem.

Gestaltism and Absoluteism and Education


Learning Environment: Such a learning environment should be provided by the teacher that the child is motivated to learn on his own, he observes different aspects of a problem as a pair or unit, so that he develops insight to diagnose the problem. 

Complete problem: A problem text should be presented by the teacher in a complete form so that the child gets a complete knowledge of that problem or text and an insight arises in it.


Organization of the lesson: The teacher should organize the lesson in such a way that it attains completeness and becomes capable of generating insight in the child. 

Generalization: The teacher should generalize the various facts taught in the class so that the child can fully experience the subject matter of the lesson.

From the above discussion it can be concluded that Gestaltism attacks the behaviorist principles of learning. 

It emphasizes on learning through common sense. 

If the child accepts any experience or object in its entirety, then the insight to solve the questions arises from that object.